Wheat is the second most important field crop on arable lands in Hungary and Croatia. Yield variations between years are high in both countries. In the short term these variations are mainly the result of the weather parameters specific to individual growing seasons. The aim of this study was to compare variations in winter wheat yields over years in four counties in Hungary and five in Croatia, with the emphasis on the impact of rainfall and mean air temperature regimes. The results showed that rainfall in spring was most decisive for winter wheat yields. The highest winter wheat yields were obtained when the rainfall in the winter half-year ranged from 230–260 mm and the spring rainfall from 180–230 mm. The precipitation in the growing season is much higher in eastern Croatia than in eastern Hungary, so water shortage is a more pronounced environmental problem for wheat in Hungary. This is probably why wheat yields were lower in eastern Hungary than in eastern Croatia in the period tested. Pearson correlation analysis on the yields and meteorological data between 1990 and 2009 revealed a positive correlation between spring rainfall and the yield, and a negative correlation between spring temperature and the yield. The results proved that yields were determined not only by weather conditions, but by many other factors (crop rotation, tillage, fertilization, variety, crop protection, etc.).
Authors:V. Mladenov, B. Banjac, A. Krishna, and M. Milošević
Quality of wheat grain is a complex trait that depends mostly on the quantity and quality of protein and unified interactions between high molecular glutenin, gliadin, low molecular glutenins and abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and genotype × environment interaction on quality and some agronomic traits in wheat. Twenty divergent genotypes of winter wheat, per five from Serbia, Russia, France and Hungary were analysed in this paper. Variability was observed for quality (grain protein content and sedimentation) and agronomic traits (thousand-grain weight and test weight) in three growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10). Genotypes were statistically analysed [basic statistical parameters, AMMI biplot for the content of protein, correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)] in order to assess the impact of different growing seasons on selected cultivars. AMMI analysis determined that 2008/09 was very significant for most of the genotypes. The Hungarian cultivar GK-Zugoly had the highest grain protein content (14.4%). Correlation analysis showed different relationships between the traits. PCA indicated that the total variation reflected the first two components represented with 80%, but the first principal component was more important. Results of this paper indicate that the varieties MV-Csardas and Pamyati Kalinenko can be used as a good source of genetic material for future breeding program for agro-ecological conditions of Vojvodina.
Mineral composition of grain of some new winter wheat genotypes in Croatia was studied. The following genotypes were selected: Lara, Lenta Kruna Fiesta, AG-45 and Perla which were taken from macrotrials during two vegetation periods of 1997/98 and 1998/99 at two locations in Donji Miholjac and Kutjevo. N-concentration was determined by the micro-Kjeldahl method, P spectrophotometrically and concentration of K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn by the AAS method (atomic absorption spectrophotometry). Interaction between the examined parameters was defined by multiple regression and correlation analysis. The results showed higher concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Mn, except for Fe, in the grain from Donji Miholjac than from Kutjevo. High concentration variability of macro and microelements in the grain of the examined genotypes depended on location and growing year. Concentration of macro and microelements in the grain did not have significant correlation with the grain yield for the examined genotypes, apart from N and Mg concentration.
Authors:István Harta, Miklós Gulyás, and György Füleky
A Gödöllői Agrártudományi Egyetemen 1970-ben 1 hektáros kísérleti területet hoztak létre, ahol 16 éven keresztül vizsgálták különböző műtrágyakezelések (N, P, K) kukorica monokultúrára gyakorolt hatását. Ezt követően összesen 6 t·ha-1 mennyiségű CaCO3-ot juttattak ki a kísérleti terület felére, majd 1995-ben a terület-re fehér akácot telepítettek. A munka során a nagy mennyiségű, komplex műtrágyá-zás hosszú távú hatását vizsgáltuk 20 éve telepített akácállomány szerkezeti para-métereire. Ehhez 48 mintaparcellát jelöltünk ki (4x12 műtrágya-kezelés) úgy, hogy minden kezeléscsoportból egy-egy ismétlés legyen.
A legfontosabb meghatározott paraméterek a törzsszám, a törzstávolság, a lomb-korona-záródás, a cserjeszint-záródás, a körlapösszeg, az átlagos mellmagassági átmérő, az átlagmagasság és a fatérfogat voltak. Ehhez a mintaterületen található 369 db akác mellmagassági átmérőit és 40 mintafa magasságát mértük meg.
A statisztikai elemzés során kéttényezős varianciaanalízist és korreláció-analízist alkalmaztunk.
Az eredmények alapján minden szerkezeti paraméter esetében szignifikáns kü-lönbség volt, a kezelések tehát hatással voltak az akácos szerkezetének alakulására. A lineáris korrelációvizsgálat eredményei szerint a kijuttatott tápanyagok és a me-szezés hatásai komplex formában jelentkeznek. A kijuttatott foszfor- és kálium csak a lombkorona-záródásra mutatott gyenge korrelációt. A kijuttatott nitrogén ható-anyagra sem lehet korrelációt megállapítani. Ennek oka valószínűleg az, hogy a nagy mennyiséget kapott parcellákon csökkent a légköri nitrogénfixáció. A mesze-zés hatására több helyen adódott szignifikáns különbség, tehát a kijuttatott CaCO3 hatással volt az egyes elemek felvehetőségére, így az állomány szerkezeti paraméte-reire. A meszezés hatása leginkább a növőtér nagyságában és a cserjeszint záródá-sában mutatkozik meg. A csökkent növőtér eredményeképp az egyes szerkezeti paraméterek (átlagos mellmagassági átmérő, átlagmagasságok) értékei csökkentek, ez azonban nem okozta a hektáronkénti fatérfogatok alacsonyabb értékét.
A kijuttatott műtrágyaadagok növelték a faállomány térfogatát, a termőhely mi-nősége ellenére jó-közepes fatermési osztályokat lehet megállapítani. A kis parcel-laméretek és az erdők tápanyagforgalmának sajátosságai miatt az állomány egyes paraméterei a kiegyenlítődés irányába mutatnak.
Authors:D. Horvat, Z. Jurković, G. Drezner, G. Šimić, D. Novoselović, and K. Dvojković
The gluten proteins of 15 winter wheat cultivars grown in eastern Croatia were studied for their contribution to the bread-making quality. Composition of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, while the quantity of gluten proteins was determined by combined extraction/RP-HPLC procedure. The results of the linear correlation analysis carried out on the particular gluten proteins and technological properties showed that the amount of total gluten content highly correlates with protein content. Among gluten proteins, the glutenins showed higher correlation with protein content, with pronounced influence of HMW-GS, than gliadins. Wet gluten content was significantly correlated to total gliadin quantity. Gluten index as gluten quality parameter was positively influenced by total glutenins and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), and negatively, by the ratios of gliadin to glutenin (Gli/Glu), whereas the amount of gliadins was not important. Dough development time was strongly correlated with total gluten content, total glutenins and the Gli/Glu ratio. Dough mixing resistance was strongly affected by total glutenin content with pronounced influence of HMW-GS. Degree of dough softening is mainly negative influenced by total glutenins and ratio of Gli/Glu. Farinograph quality number as flour quality index was highly positively correlated with total glutenins, with emphasized influence of HMW-GS. The Gli/Glu ratio had the highest influence on dough maximum resistance. Dough extensibility showed moderate correlation with total gliadins. The results of the linear correlation indicated that loaves volumes were significantly influenced by total gluten proteins, HMW-GS and LMW-GS.
The EU Chocolate Directive 2000/36/EC allows the use of the vegetable fats CBEs and CBIs up to a maximum of 5% in chocolate. Manufacturers and users must know how this has an influence on the properties of chocolate. The objective of the work reported here was to find out by systematic investigations, which effect CBEs/CBIs have on the quality parameters, hardness and heat resistance of chocolate. The influence on the hardness was tested also under extreme practical storage conditions. The quality monitoring was performed up to one year. For the determination of the heat resistance the penetrometric method was used in the temperature range 25–32 °C measuring the maximum loading force, occurring during the penetration of a cylindrical probe of 2 mm diameter with 4 mm penetration. The correlation between the average maximum loading force, relevant to the hardness of chocolate, and the temperature can be described by a linear regression at 95% confidence level. Statistical analyses (correlation analysis, residual analysis, Durban-Watson statistic) showed that it is possible to define the heat resistance of solid chocolate in the temperature range of 25–32 °C by the slope and the ordinate intercept of the regression line of the loading force vs. temperature for given parameters (composition, storage, experimental layout, etc.). For the determination of the hardness of the chocolate also the penetrometric method was used to measure the maximum loading force occurring during the penetration of a needle probe with 2 mm deformation. The hardness of the chocolate samples determined with the penetrometric method and statistical analysis (One-Way, Two-Way Analysis of Variance, Dunnett’s comparisons) is significantly dependent on the composition and storage conditions, where the storage conditions are the dominant factor. The results show that the differences in hardness between the chocolate samples with CBE/CBI and those without CBE/CBI, both stored in the cellar (cold storage), are marginal. After one week of storage the sample with CBI has nearly the same hardness as the standard sample with CB, whereas the sample with CBE was slightly softer. The differences are slightly clearer for the northern storage room (moderate temperature) and for the southern room (warm temperature). After a definite storage time the hardness of all samples increased and was in the case of the southern storage room (warm temperature) up to twice as high. The quality monitoring up to one year showed that the reason for this increase in hardness is not a special storage time but the increasing temperatures with the beginning of the warm season and the cyclic change of the temperature during day and night. So an explanation for this unexpected increase in hardness can be a thermocyclic hardening of the chocolate samples under these storage conditions.
minőségi mutatók között. (Effect of fertilizers on the quality of wheat flour, correlationanalysis between quality parameters.) PhD Thesis, DATE, Debrecen.
Véha, A., Markovics, E. 1998: Correlation between wheat flour quality
Authors:Takashi Nakajima, Megumi Yoshida, and Naoyuki Kawada
Choo, T. M., Martin, R. A., Ho, K. M., Shen, Q., Fedak, G., Savard, M., Voldeng, H., Falk, D. E., Etienne, M., Sparry, E. 2004. Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation of barley in eastern Canada: Cultivar response and correlationanalysis
Authors:Péter Sipos, Árpád Tóth, Éva Mars, and Zoltán Győri
, CorrelationAnalysis Between Quality Parameters.) PhD Thesis, Debrecen
Véha, A., Markovics, E. (1998): Correlation Between Wheat Flour Quality Parameters. Book of Abstracts p. 147. 16th ICC Conference. Vienna, Austria