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. Appl. Genet. 112 : 1239 – 1247 . Gorji , A.H. , Zolnoori , M. 2011 . Genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat genotypes using microsatellite markers . Asian J. of

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Anderson, O.D., Greene, F.C. 1989. The characterization and comparative analysis of high-molecular-weight glutenin genes from genomes A and B of a hexaploid bread wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 77 :689

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, R.M., Aung, T. 2005. Registration of sawfly resistant hexaploid spring wheat germplasm lines derived from durum. Crop Sci. 45 :1665. Aung T. Registration of sawfly resistant

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. 2006 90 683 689 Sajjad, M., Khan, S.H., Mujeeb-Kazi, A. 2012. The lowdown on association mapping in hexaploid wheat

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19 29 Gupta, R.B., Shepherd, K.W. 1990. Two-step one dimensional SDS-PAGE analysis of LMW subunits of Glutelin. I. Variation and genetic control of the subunits in hexaploid

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Amrani M., Sarrafi A., Alibert G. 1993. Genetic variability for haploid production in crosses between tetraploid and hexaploid wheat with maize. Plant Breed. 110 :123

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. Cyran , M. & Lapiński , B. ( 2006 ): Physico-chemical characteristics of dietary fibre fractions in the grains of tetraploid and hexaploid triticales: a comparison with wheat and rye . Plant Breeding Seed Sci. , 54 , 77 – 84

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1212 Upadhya, M.D., Swaminathan, M.S. 1963. Genome analysis in Triticum zhukovskyi , a new hexaploid wheat. Chromosoma 14 :589–600. Swaminathan M

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Wheat genotypes from various Triticum L. genus species ( T. dicoccoides Körn, T. durum Desf, T. spelta L. and T. aestivum L.) were analysed by stereological analysis in order to explore the existence of inter-species differences and similarities in anatomical characteristics of wheat flag leaf tissue. The genotypes of the tetraploid species did not differ significantly among themselves in the volume density of the analysed tissues of the flag leaf. Among the hexaploid species, the results showed highly significant differences in volume density of the photosynthetic tissue and volume density of the mechanical tissue; and significant differences for the volume density of the vascular tissue. The analysis of the main vein of the flag leaf showed smaller volumes of the vascular tissue in hexaploid species — of the phloem and parenchyma of the main vein. The analysed species showed the greatest difference in the volume of the main vein, the parenchyma of the main vein and the mechanical tissue. When compared to the volume and volume density of the xylem of the main vein, the tetraploid species had greater volumes and volume densities of the mechanical tissue of the main vein. With hexaploid species the results were reverse.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: A. Comeau, L. Nodichao, J. Collin, M. Baum, J. Samsatly, D. Hamidou, F. Langevin, A. Laroche, and E. Picard

Literature confirms that using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an osmotic agent to imitate water shortage was not so easy in practice, due to PEG toxicity effects and frequent contaminations. Two new approaches were developed to alleviate those problems, one using a raft covered with a membrane to prevent PEG entry in roots, and one using solidified PEG media. The raft trials were done on corn, hexaploid and tetraploid wheat, rye, triticale, oats, barley, Agrotricum; those in solid media, with corn, hexaploid and tetraploid wheat, barley, sorghum and pearl millet. Different species respond differently to PEG-induced osmotic stress. In our trials, the most sensitive cereal was corn, and this finding correlates with the lower osmotic pressure of the sap (a constitutive trait in corn seedlings). Corn responded to osmotic stress by a very poor rate of elongation of the coleoptile, especially when the highest stress (32% PEG) was used. This behavior was also observed in the field in dry years, for example in the Sahel area. Compared to this sensitive cereal species, all other cereals tested were more resistant. Hexaploid and tetraploid wheat, triticale, and Agrotricum kept capacity to elongate roots when submitted to a high osmotic stress, but the higher stress reduced root length considerably. Barley kept rooting ability like other cereals, but was able to develop more aerial biomass, seminal roots, and ramifications. Barley root hair was also longer and covered a higher proportion of the root. Those adaptive features likely explain part of the good adaptation of barley to dry Mediterranean areas. Preliminary results on solid media also showed relationships between drought resistance and the osmoresistance response, at least when comparing species. Roots of species adapted to hot climate, like pearl millet and sorghum, had few seminal roots but displayed a strong gravitropism under osmotic stress. The ease of use of solidified PEG media shows promise for future larger scale trials. Applications of solidified PEG media for research beyond cereal crops is envisioned.

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