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. ( 2014 ). Phylogenetic profiles of in-house microflora in drains at a food production facility: comparison and biocontrol implications of Listeria-positive and-negative bacterial populations . Applied and Environmental Microbiology , 80 ( 11 ): 3369

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Aidin Pahlavan, Mohammad Hassan Kamani, Amir Hossein Elhamirad, Zahra Sheikholeslami, Mohammad Armin, and Hanieh Amani

Introduction Bread is widely recognized as a primary source of energy for humans and plays a vital role in the world population's food basket. It possesses significant amounts of minerals, which are required for a healthy nutritious diet ( Cauvain

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foods, like peanut and soybean, that may trigger an allergic reaction in a small percentage of the population. Some people who are allergic to peanuts may also react to lupin ( Villa et al., 2020 ). The genus Lupinus comprises above 200

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Judit Perjéssy, Ferenc Hegyi, Magdolna Nagy-Gasztonyi, Rita Tömösközi-Farkas, and Zsolt Zalán

milks, ice cream ( Akalın et al., 2018 ) and cheese ( Blaiotta et al., 2017 ). But nondairy probiotic products have a large worldwide importance due to the ongoing trend of veganism and to a high prevalence of lactose intolerance in many populations

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stand today: the contemporary population growth and the present rate of economics are not sustainable much beyond 2100. The debunking of the environmental Kuznets curve verified that environmental degradation is deeply embedded in economic growth, making

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Hosam E. A. F. Bayoumi Hamuda, Erika Orosz, Márk Horváth, Attila Palágyi, Beatrix Szederné Baranyai, István Patkó, and Mihály Kecskés

rates of organic fertilizer on soil enzyme activity and microbial population. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 53. 132–140. Deák T., 1998. Élesztőgombák a természetben és az iparban. Mezőgazdasági Szaktudás Kiadó

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Six wheat varieties representing different genotypes were tested under exposed and protected conditions in a three year herbicide provocation field trial at Nagygombos, Hungary. Three types of herbicide treatments (fluroxipir, bromoxynil and dicamba ai.) were applied in comparison with untreated and mechanical treated controls. Weed populations were sorted into two major groups according to the level of their occurrence. The result of experimental treatments were evaluated and  weed tolerance of varieties was determined. The magnitude of weed populations has shown significant differences. All weed control treatments, including chemical and mechanical applications, had an influence on weed development. Herbicide treatments had about fifty per cent, while mechanical applications had a nearly hundred per cent effect concerning weed reduction. The latter can be considered as a level of total weed extinction. High weed canopies were observed in the case of untreated controls only. Wheat cultivars have shown a variety specific yield response. The results obtained suggest varietal differences concerning weed tolerance. The extent of yield losses between wheat cultivars ranged from 4 to 18 per cent of grain yield. In the trial Martonvásári 19 and Martonvásári 21 wheat varieties were proven to have the best weed tolerance abilities. 

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Cadmium, nickel or zinc contaminated soils originating from a long-term heavy metal field experiment were used to assess the influence of those particular treatments on the coexistence of various Trichoderma species. The abundance of six indigenous Trichoderma spp. - T . atroviride , T . harzianum , T . pubescens , T . tomentosum , T . virens and T . viride - were studied 12 years after the application of Cd, Zn and Ni salts on four levels (0, 30, 90 and 270 mg·kg -1 ) in a calcareous chernozem soil. Trichoderma fungal colonies from the soil particles were estimated on selective media. The isolated strains were taxonomically characterized by microscopic visualization.  A reduced Trichoderma fungal colonization was found at the lower ratio of the studied metals. No colonization could be recorded in the case of Cd, and a slightly increased abundance at Ni and Zn metal salts at the highest 270 mg·kg -1 doses. The species composition of the fungi varied considerably in the contaminated samples as a function of the metals and the applied doses. Correlation analysis revealed that the population density of T . atroviride , T . harzianum , T . pubescens , T . viride was negatively affected by the available Cd concentration. The nickel content of the soil, however, correlated positively with the abundance of T . harzianum (r = 0.955) and T . virens (r = 0.964). In addition to this finding, the frequency of T . viride and T . tomentosum showed significant positive and negative correlation with the Zn treatment (r = 0.955; r = -0.965, respectively). Great differences between the correlation and partial correlation coefficients suggested that the heavy metals may alter not only the abundance of the fungi, but the interspecific relationships among the indigenous Trichoderma population, as well. This fact is considered to have further influence on some other biotic parameters and the soil functioning in heavy-metal-affected soils.

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Az Európai Unió 2002-es „Egy tematikus talajvédelmi stratégia felé” című közleményében definiálta a talaj funkcióit és a talajainkat veszélyeztető legfontosabb nyolc tényezőt, melyek a következők: erózió, talaj szervesanyag-csökkenés, talajszennyezés, talajlefedés, talajtömörödés, talaj biodiverzitás csökkenés, szikesedés, árvizek és földcsuszamlások. Az „Environmental Assessment of Soil for Monitoring” (ENVASSO) Projekt az EU 25 tagállamának részvételével, egy harmonizált módszertan kidolgozását tűzte ki célul a talajtulajdonságokban bekövetkező változások nyomon követésére. Ennek érdekében minden egyes talajt veszélyeztető tényező vizsgálatára egy indikátor hármast (TOP3) dolgozott ki. A talajainkat veszélyeztető nyolc tényező közül a talaj biodiverzitás csökkenésével foglalkozunk részletesen, melynek legfontosabb kiválasztott indikátorai: a földigiliszta (BIO1) és ugróvillás (BIO2) diverzitás (fajdiverzitás), és a mikrobiológiai talajlégzés (BIO3) (biológiai funkció). Kutatásunk célkitűzése az volt, hogy az ENVASSO által javasolt módszertan kivitelezhetőségét teszteljük a Szent István Egyetem Tangazdaságában egy eróziós katéna mentén. Megállapítottuk, hogy a talaj biodiverzitása csökkent az erózió mértékének növekedésével, valamint a módszertan megfelelő tervezéssel alkalmas monitoring célra.

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A pot experiment was designed to study the colonization of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) host plant. Soils of the pots were collected from a long-term field microelement loading experiment on calcareous chernozem soil twelve years after 13 heavy metals (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn) were applied once in four doses (0, 30, 90 and 270 mg element·kg -1 d.w.). The biomass production and element accumulation of the host plant, the various colonization values of the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) – such as colonization intensity (M %), arbusculum richness (A %) in the root system and the sporulation intensity (g -1 dry soil) in the rhizosphere – were measured. When considering the twelve-year adaptation process of the AM fungal populations at the various metal loads, a relatively balanced inside mycorrhiza colonization was found, suggesting the potentials for the selection of tolerant fungi in metal contaminated soils. The balanced infection intensity (M %) of the AM fungi and their common strategies with the host plant have resulted a nonsignificant shoot and root biomass production of barley in general. Mycorrhiza sporulation in the root system proved to be much variable and indicated the toxicity of metals and metal rates. Cd, Pb and Sr elements significantly reduced spore numbers, while a value of 34 spores·g -1 soil was counted in the case of Ni in comparison to the control’s 22 spores·g -1 soil value. Stress-defending strategies of the fungal–plant symbiosis, such as the increased arbusculum richness (A %) could be established for the Hg and Pb rates. In the case of Cd an increased root biomass production became a tool for stress alleviation and reduced the metal allocation towards the shoots. Mycorrhiza fungi are part of the common plant–microbe interactions and appropriate defending mechanisms in metal contaminated soils.

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