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The folk-utopian legends of Kitež and Belovodie developed in different his-torical times. The verbal version of legend of Kitež arose in the 13th century, the written version was formed in the second half of the 18th century, but the legend of Belovodie roots back to the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Both legends, however, have common cul-tural genesis as they came into existence among the so-called wanderers or runners sect of Russian Old Believers. These utopian legends are indissolubly linked with national reli-giousness, which had a second period of blossom in different transformations in Russian culture at the end of 19th-beginning of 20th century. The author attempted to show how motifs and elements of these legends, and realia from the wanderers' life interlace in the thematical structure of the historical short story of Ivan Žox that has never been studied before from this aspect.

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In the works of Nabokov there is a combination of scryptography of symbols that the writer uses in an ambivalent way-playing with them (in the high, psychologic sense of the play also as ritual) and exploiting them as polygenetic symbols with different referent sources (Jewish Bible, Egypt, New Testament, antiquity, Dante, Cabala, alchemy, freemasonry). The article shows in a parallel investigation of the Russian and the English texts of the short story how the fantastique way from a museum in France to the native town of the hero, to Russia, due to the broad variety of intertextual allusions, motives and invariants of Nabokov's oeuvre can be understood as a ritual transition through the “underworld” to an “other world”.

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Az endokrin sebészet evolúciója: múlt, jelen és jövő

Evolution of endocrine surgery: past, present and future

Magyar Sebészet
Author:
Géza Lukács

20 603 12 . 2. D Liebermann-Meffert 2000 Short story of Theodor Kocher's life and relationship to the

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The expression xuuč yaria can be translated as ‘story’ or ‘gossip’, and indeed, they are short stories about interesting, extraordinary or sometimes fearful events heard or seen by the storyteller. As far as their content is concerned, the stories are colourful and ramifying, and it is beyond doubt that the xuuč yaria has some connections with domogs, tales and even heroic epics. Unfortunately, research into this field has begun relatively recently, so these connections are far from being clear. Moreover, the xuuč yaria stories are interesting not only from the point of view of folklore, but they also shed light on the history of ideas, since the first ones were collected in the 1950s, and thus some of them reflect the political atmosphere of the socialist era. In this article an attempt is made to give the broader outlines of the xuuč yaria as a genre of Mongolian folklore, and establish a typology in the hope that it will be helpful for further research.

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Abstract

Mikhail Bulgakov's fantastic short story The Fatal Eggs (1925) was translated into English by five translators, Mirra Ginsburg (1964), Kathleen Gook-Horujy (1990), Hugh Aplin (2003), Michael Karpelson (2010), and Roger Cockrell (2011). The emphasis in this research is on the linguistic analysis of the translations of cultural, social and historical realia referred to as Sovietisms, which pertain to items characteristic of Soviet discourse in the 1930s. Bulgakov's language is brimming with Soviet vocabulary that refers to various cultural and socio-political elements of Soviet reality. A complete naturalization or even omission of Sovietisms may lead to loss of connotative meanings essential to understanding the context, while foreignizing through transliteration or calquing may disturb the fluency of reading. The purpose of the analysis is to assess the translators' choices and what they imply for the readers. Another aim is to test the assumptions of re-translation theory (Bensimon 1990; Gambier 1994), which states that early translations are more target-oriented than subsequent translations. The analysis employs taxonomies suggested by Vlakhov and Florin (1980) and Mokienko and Nikitina (1998) for the classification of Sovietisms, and Aixelá’s taxonomy of translation strategies (1996) as the grounds for the case study.

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While Tolstoy’s ideological and religious turn is often mentioned in the special literature, the turn in his poetics is hardly ever. The present study focuses on the latter phenomenon. After the turn in his ideology and poetics, Tolstoy searched for such new forms to express his moral and philosophical thoughts as the legend, the apologue, the parable, the hagiography and the confession, etc. He elaborated such a comprehensive form of the short story which approaches the novelette in its length but condenses the conflict in a dramatic manner at the same time. The works to be analyzed here are the following: What Men Live By?, How Much Land Does a Man Need?, Father Sergey, Master and Man, Posthumous Papers of the Elder Fedor Kuzmich, The False Coupon. It is possible to understand the deeper meaning of these parables only if one is able to discover the archetypal mythemes in the deep structure of the concrete text, and trace them back to their primal form, which universalizes the mystery of resurrection for the receiver. The conclusion of this paper is that Tolstoy considered self-improvement a universal law, with the help of which man can learn truth and transform it into living practice: aletheia turns into ethos.

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This paper intends to present the innovation of stream of consciousness techniques by Sasha Sokolov in School for idiots within the theory of post-structuralism, William James' concept of “consciousness” and the aspects of fictionality. The main stress is laid on how radically Sasha Sokolov renewed a special end of the 19th-first half of the 20th century novel tradition marked by Lewis Carroll, Dujardin, Proust, James Joyce, Faulkner, Vaginov. This article undertakes to demonstrate that Sasha Sokolov in 1970 took with his new concept of the deviant personality and intertextualism a step towards the postmodern, thereby considerably contributing to wind up normative restrictions then reigning soviet belles-lettres. In the narrator's free schizophrenic act of speech, fighting for freedom against the power of persons in control, where the distance between presentation and representation is apparently abolished, strained relations between speaking and writing are created. There is no author's intention which could direct the reception. Past, present and future, imagination and “reality” (within the scope of fiction), life and death are perceived to be reciprocally exchangeable. But despite this discursive way of “showing” the ill boy's inner world, a considerable composing attitude prevails in the text, which is established by the exact mythological and quotational structure, made up mainly by motifs borrowed from Hermetism, by allusions to poems of Pushkin, Hölderlin or Rilke and short stories by Gogol´ and Poe.

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The relationship of the three earliest sources (Herodotus, Plato, Xanthus) relating how Gyges came to power is controversial. Their most striking common feature is the motif of Gyges seizing power through getting hold of the queen. The close connection of the queen and power proves to be an Eastern motif, a special Persian interpretation of the translatio imperii , according to which the royal woman bears the glory representing the sovereign power (χvarәnah-) and providing the ruler with legitimacy. Deriving from the Persian ideology of sovereignty, this motif tends to appear in Herodotus, in Xenophon and in the tradition about Alexander the Great. Therefore, the earliest sources relating this story must originate from the Old Persian short stories. The authenticity of the tale about Aladdin in the One Thousand and One Nights has been questioned several times since it does not have a tradition of codices. However, its parallels with the Gyges stories, particularly the presence of the special Persian interpretation of the translatio imperii suggest a common Persian source, thus, the tale is likely to be authentic.

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This paper examines the iconolographical origin of Johannes Sambucus’ emblem dedicated to Carlo Sigonio, which – according to its title – displays the difference between grammar, dialectics, rhetoric and history. I focus on the central female figure whose innocent nudity represents the truth and whose connection with the ideal historiography standing – balancing together with Dialectics and Rhetoric – on the head of the young virgin Grammar. The special relationship between History and naked truth also defines its symbolic connection with the costumes of the other two figures: Dialectics in rough working clothes and Rhetoric in her long luxury dress. Three symbolic animals also belong to the three female figures: a sphinx to Dialectics, a chimera to Rhetoric and a winged dog to History. Contextual examination of the emblem reveals the possible source of the strange winged dog symbol is Plutarch’s short story of Osiris and Isis. In addition, the paper draws attention to an ironic twist of History in connection with Carlo Sigonio that shows that its nudity is not always so innocent.

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The contribution discusses the concept of the hybrid text familiar in postcolonial literature as a text written by the ex-colonised in the language of the excoloniser, hence creating a ‘new language' and occupying a space ‘in between'. It is therefore not identical with the concept of the hybrid text discussed in Schäffner and Adab (1997) as the result of an interlingual translation process, although there are many similarities, from the ‘strange, unusual' features to the phenomenon of ‘contact as con-flict'. For the translator, the postcolonial hybrid text – due to its ‘new language' in-volving elements ranging from lexical and grammatical innovation to culture-bound items – presents many problems. These emerge clearly from the examples discussed here, which are taken from India (Rushdie and Roy) and from the Philippines (the tradi-tional form of the short story known as the sugilanon). It is seen that the hybrid, innovative nature of the language is often actually reduced by the interlingual translation process, and – in contrast to the foreignising process of artificially ‘bending back' the lan-guage – a case is made for a holistic, ‘scenes-and-frames' approach and for strategies that maximise the creative potential of the text for the target culture.

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