: Különböző növénytermesztési tényezők hatása a kukorica termésére és termésstabilitására. (Effect of various crop production factors on the yield and yieldstability of maize.) Növénytermelés , 44 , 507-517.
Authors:F. Sciacca, M. Allegra, S. Licciardello, G. Roccuzzo, B. Torrisi, N. Virzì, M. Brambilla, E. Romano, and M. Palumbo
De Vita , P. , Mastrangelo , A.M. , Matteu , L. , Mazzucotelli , E. , Virzì , N. , Palumbo , M. , Lo Storto , M. , Rizza , F. , Cattivelli , L.
2010 . Genetic improvement effects on yieldstability in durum wheat
The interactions of ecological conditions, genotypes and agrotechnical elements determine the yield quantity, quality and stability in cereal (wheat, maize) production. The applied input- level can modify the adaptive capacity of crop models to ecological conditions. The effects of agrotechnical elements (crop rotation, fertilization, irrigation, crop protection, plant density) were studied in the long-term experiment on chernozem soil. Our scientific results proved that the high yields and good yield-stability were obtained in the input-intensive crop models, so these models had better adaptive capacity, high yield and resilience. Maize had lower ecological adaptive ability than winter wheat. The optimalization of agrotechnical elements reduces the harmful climatic effects so we can increase the yield and yield stability of cereals agro-ecosystems. The yields of wheat varied between 2 and 7 t ha−1 in extensive and 8 and 10 t ha-1 in intensive crop models and the yields of maize ranged between 2 and 11 t ha−1 and 10 and 15 t ha−1, respectively.
In order to enhance the adaptability and yield stability of maize, the effect of nutrient supply and plant density on yield was studied on a calcareous chernozem soil in Debrecen, while the relationship between sowing date and the grain moisture content at harvest was investigated on a typical meadow soil in Hajdúböszörmény. In the plant density experiment, the plant densities applied were 45, 60, 75 and 90 thousand plants/ha. The optimal fertilizer rates for the maize hybrids were: N 40-120, P2O5 25-75, K2O 30-90 kg ha-1. The application of NPK fertilizers in a wet year increased the yield by 40-50%. Hybrids with good chilling resistance at germination can be sown as early as 10 April, when the soil temperature reaches 8-10°C. There was a significant correlation between sowing date and the grain moisture content at harvest. When hybrids with good chilling resistance at germination were sown early, the grain moisture content at harvest was reduced by 5-10%. A plant density higher than the optimum reduces yield and yield stability. The optimal plant densities determined in the experiment were 60, 75 and 90 thousand plants/ha for two, three and one hybrid, respectively.
Four maize hybrids bred at the Cereal Research Non-Profit Company in Szeged were registered at the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control (OMMI) during the period 2001-2004. The registration of five Szeged hybrids is expected on the territory of the European Union in 2005-2006. The hybrids are accompanied by specific production technological guides for commercial production based on the results of agronomy trials, so that the genetic potential of the hybrids can be utilised in practical farming to the highest possible extent. The specific agronomic traits of hybrids with different vegetation periods and genotypes are investigated. If a maize hybrid is to be recommended to farmers, it is necessary to know not only its yield potential, but also its yield stability. For this reason, investigations are also made on the effect of soil and climate on the grain yield potential of each hybrid individually.