Authors:B. Kőszegi, I. Karsai, K. Mészáros, and G. Kovács
( Hordeumvulgare ssp. vulgare L.) cultivars and two weed flora in relation to interception of photosynthetic active radiation. Biol. Agric. Hort. , 20 , 257-273.
Competition between six spring barley (Hordeumvulgare ssp
Authors:S. Dulai, I. Molnár, B. Haló, and M. Molnár-Láng
., Abadía, J. (1999): Effects of salinity on chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis of barley ( Hordeumvulgare L.) grown under a triple-line-source sprinkler system in the field. Photosynthetica , 36 , 375
A study was undertaken at the Directorate of Wheat Research experimental station, Karnal, India, to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (30, 60 and 90 kg/ha) and irrigation (one, two and three) on yield and grain quality traits of two and six row type malt barley genotypes. The mean grain yield significantly increased from 41.9 to 45.8 q/ha with increase in nitrogen dose from 30 to 90 kg/ha and 41.8 to 45.9 q/ha with increase in irrigations from one to three. The two and six row barleys had almost similar yield potential at higher nitrogen application and irrigation frequency but the six-row type had advantage at lower nitrogen and irrigation. Varietal effects were significant for all the traits, while N significantly affected only grain yield, spikes per unit area, 1000-grain weight and husk content. Irrigation effects were significant for bulk density, grain yield, spikes per unit area, and grains per spike. Traits like grain bulk density, proportion of bold and thin grains and husk content are mainly affected by variety and less affected by management practices.
Authors:J.Q. Xu, L. Wang, B.L. Liu, T.F. Xia, D.C. Liu, X. Chang, T.W. Zhang, H.G. Zhang, and Y.H. Shen
As one of the world’s earliest domesticated crops, barley is a model species for the study of evolution and domestication. Domestication is an evolutionary process whereby a population adapts, through selection; to new environments created by human cultivation. We describe the genome-scanning of molecular diversity to assess the evolution of barley in the Tibetan Plateau. We used 667 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to genotype 185 barley landraces and wild barley accessions from the Tibetan Plateau. Genetic diversity in wild barley was greater than in landraces at both genome and chromosome levels, except for chromosome 3H. Landraces and wild barley accessions were clearly differentiated genetically, but a limited degree of introgression was still evident. Significant differences in diversity between barley subspecies at the chromosome level were observed for genes known to be related to physiological and phenotypical traits, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, malting quality and agronomic traits. Selection on the genome of six-rowed naked barley has shown clear multiple targets related to both its specific end-use and the extreme environment in Tibet. Our data provide a platform to identify the genes and genetic mechanisms that underlie phenotypic changes, and provide lists of candidate domestication genes for modified breeding strategies.
Authors:Takashi Nakajima, Megumi Yoshida, and Naoyuki Kawada
Fungicide application is one measure available to reduce the risk of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and mycotoxin contamination in barley. The stage at or near anthesis, or at full head emergence, is generally thought to be optimal for fungicide application, regardless of cultivar. However, we have found that the most critical time for
infection and mycotoxin accumulation in barley differed among cultivars. Whereas open-flowering cultivars were most susceptible at anthesis, closed-flowering cultivars were considerably resistant at anthesis but became susceptible after ‘spent’ anther extrusion. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the timing of fungicide application on FHB and mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol and nivalenol) accumulation in closed-flowering barley. Thiophanate-methyl fungicide was applied at different developmental stages, from before anthesis to 30 days after anthesis (DAA), under artificial inoculation conditions in the field in which inoculum spores were provided throughout the testing period. As expected, the optimal timing for chemical control of FHB and mycotoxin accumulation was the time around the beginning of spent anther extrusion, rather than at anthesis. Later application, as late as 30 DAA, was also effective in controlling mycotoxin accumulation, although it was not effective in controlling disease levels. Our results suggest that the development of control strategies that cover the late stage as well as the early stage is desirable to reduce the risk of mycotoxin contamination in barley.