Authors:S. Fekete, Tibor Gaál, M. Hegedűs, F. Janza, and L. Zöldág
The nutritive value of dog foods declared by the manufacturer as nutritionally complete and balanced can be best assessed by feeding trials with dogs. A protocol of a feeding trial has been developed and tested with working dogs fed two different commercial complete and balanced diets for 8 weeks. The parameters used for evaluating the effect of diets were general health status, body and hair coat condition, change of body weight, haematological parameters (white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume), and biochemical parameters in blood serum (alanine aminotransferase, urea, albumin). The trial protocol proved to be appropriate to monitor the dogs' nutritional status and to reveal differences between diets. This method of evaluation is recommended for use in supporting the nutritional claims (labelling) of dog foods.
A radioimmunoanalytical (RIA) method was elaborated for the determination of ferritin in human blood serum in clinical practice. Placental ferritin separated from the human after-delivery placental and antibodies against the human placental ferritin obtained by the immunization of rabbits with this antigen were used. The whole complex of basic conditions and parameters of the RIA method was tested including the estimation of the region of normal values and clinical tests. The method elaborated was compared with the commercial kit Ferritin RIA Amersham, code IM 1051, chosen as reference kit. The results of the determination of control parameters as well as ferritin levels obtained by the method elaborated exert good agreement with the reference kit and correspond to requirements for routine RIA practice.
In the present study a method using enriched stable isotope tracer and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was developed to study the dynamic distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) in a variety of organs and tissues of Wistar rats. Stable isotopes 152Sm and 168Yb were selected as tracers for the experiment. Intravenously injected 152Sm and 168Yb in chloride form could be quickly absorbed and distributed in almost all the organs and tissues of interest, including liver, skeleton, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, testicle, and blood serum. Liver and skeleton had high ability to take up 152Sm and 168Yb under the experimental conditions, whereas the contents of the elements in other organs were generally lower than 2% of the given dose during the whole experimental period. The difference in distribution of 152Sm and 168Yb in the body was also discussed.
A method for determining Human FSH in blood/serum by RIA is described. The radioiodination of FSH with125I is carried out under carefully controlled conditions such as, amount of initial activity of125I take for iodination, the reaction volume, and the reaction time, etc. The tracer FSH obtained thus is with minimum damage and optimum specific activity which is ideally suited for RIA. The shelf-life of the tracer is enhanced by the addition of benzyl alchol. The tracer can be conveniently stored at+4–6°C upto 10 weeks, avoiding the repeated freezing and thawing process. Antiserum to FSH is raised in rabbits by repeated injections via intramuscular route. The method utilizes polyethylene glycol /PEG/ as the separation system. Using this method, a number of control samples of men and women of reproductive age group are screened. This sensitive assay has a good validity and has an inter-assay variation less than 15%.
Gel filtration and neutron activation analysis methods were combined in work aimed at the development of methods for the determination
of metals firmly bound to protein in human blood serum. The values obtained are semiquantative. A purely instrumental technique
afforded data on Cu, Fe, Zn, Al and Mn but values for the latter two only were determined since Cu, Fe and Zn are already
well known. The concentrations for Al and Mn were found to be 300 ppb and 0.4 ppb, respectively. Despite the high resolution
of Ge(Li) detectors, no other metals were found. For the determination of any others, radiochemical separations are necessary
and were used to obtain data on the following elements: As 3 ppb, Ag 3 ppb, Au 0.003 ppb, Cr 1 ppb, Sb 1 ppb, Co, Cd, Mo and
Sn could not be detected and upper limits were estimated to be 0.1 ppb, 2 ppb, 2 ppb, and 1 ppb, respectively.
Authors:Stefania Iwańska, Danuta Strusińska, and W. Zalewski
When evaluating the effects of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae1026) supplied with or without a vitamin premix and mineral bioplexes on some intermediates and end-products involved in the synthesis of milk constituents in 30 early-lactation Black and White Lowland cows, no significant differences were found in the glucose level, mineral contents and enzyme activities of the blood serum. The effect of yeast culture on the availability of minerals for milk synthesis depended upon the dynamics of degradation of mineral bioplexes in the rumen and the cows' mineral status. The insignificant increase found in blood total protein content and the simultaneous small differences in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) values in cows supplied with the yeast culture were probably associated with a high ammonia incorporation into microbial protein in the rumen, which increased protein supply for milk protein synthesis and decreased the nitrogen loss.
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been employed to study the thermal denaturation processes of the main protein
fractions of blood serum. These processes have been compared for albumins (nondefatted (HSA) and fatty acid free (HSAf)),
α,β-globulins, γ-globulins, and their mixtures in aqueous (pH 6.5) and buffer (pH 7.2) solutions. The results have indicated
that α,β-globulins inhibit γ-globulins’ aggregation in buffer solutions. The decrease of stability of HSA and HSAf aqueous
solutions has been observed in the presence of γ-globulins. The mixtures of albumins and γ-globulins have revealed the tendency
to ready aggregation in water. Moreover, the results have suggested that neither γ-globulins nor albumins severely change
the stability of α,β-globulins.
Authors:Małgorzata Dżugan, Marcin Lis, Maria Droba, and Jerzy Niedziółka
The aim of the study was to determine the toxicity of cadmium ions in chick embryos, using plasma hydrolytic enzyme as its biomarker. Hatching eggs (n = 300) from Ross 308 broilers were incubated under standard conditions. On day 4 of incubation, 50 μl of saline solution, containing Cd ions at a concentration from 0 (control group) to 24 μg, was injected in ovo into the egg albumen. The results indicate that the administration of cadmium at doses exceeding 1 μg/egg caused a gradual decrease in hatchability, with an LD50 of 3.9 μg/egg. The greatest differences between the groups in the enzymatic activities studied were found for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), β-D-mannosidase (β-MAN) and arylsulphatase (ARYL). Compared to the control group, in the blood serum of chicks from the groups receiving 3, 6 and 12 μg Cd/egg the NAG activity increased by 79, 108 and 54% and β-MAN activity by 33, 119 and 108%, respectively. Exposure to cadmium at a dose of 1 to 6 μg per egg caused an about 60% increase in ARYL activity while a dose of 12 μg decreased the activity by about 35% below the level observed in the control group. These findings show that cadmium has a similar toxicity mechanism in mammals and birds, which opens the possibility of using NAG activity as a biomarker of the cytotoxic effect of cadmium in birds.
Authors:Sakine Yalçin, A. Ergün, Handan Erol, Suzan Yalçin, and B. Özsoy
This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of using L-carnitine and humate alone or in combination in quail diets on laying performance, egg traits and blood parameters. A total of 280 Japanese quails aged 10 weeks, divided into one control group and three treatment groups, were used. The diets of the first, second and third treatment groups were supplemented with 100 mg L-carnitine/kg, 1.5 g humate (Farmagülatör® Dry Plus)/kg and 100 mg L-carnitine + 1.5 g humate/kg, respectively. The experimental period lasted 16 weeks. The addition of L-carnitine and sodium humate alone or in combination did not significantly affect body weight, feed consumption, egg production, feed conversion ratio, mortality, egg-shell thickness, egg yolk index and the percentages of egg-shell, albumen and yolk. Egg weight increased (P < 0.001) with L-carnitine supplementation. The values of egg albumen height (P < 0.05), egg albumen index (P < 0.01) and egg Haugh unit (P < 0.05) were increased with humate supplementation. Egg cholesterol content and blood serum parameters were not affected by the supplementation of L-carnitine with or without humate. The results in this study demonstrated that L-carnitine supplementation increased egg weight while humate addition increased egg albumen index and egg Haugh unit of laying quails. However, the combined administration of L-carnitine and humate did not have any significant effects on the parameters measured.
Authors:J. Juskiewicz, M. Wróblewska, K. Zhaki, Z. Zdunczyk, and L. Hussein
The objective of the experiment was to determine whether small amounts of proanthocyanidins (0.1 and 0.3%) may increase the antioxidative properties of the rat diet without exerting an antinutritional effect. Proanthocyanidins of faba bean seed coats were extracted with a mixture of acetone and water (70:30) and lyophilized. The amount of proanthocyanidins was two- or fourfold higher in the experimental diets as compared to the control diet. The addition of proanthocyanidin extract had no significant effect on the coefficients of digestibility of crude protein, daily nitrogen retention and the coefficient of biological value of diet protein. In the blood serum of rats fed diets supplemented with proanthocyanidin extract, there was a slightly higher content of vitamin E and alanine aminotransferase activity, while the content of vitamin A and aspartate aminotransferase activity were similar to those of the control group. In the contents of the rat gut (caecum), a lower activity of â -glucuronidase was found as compared to the control group, whereas â -galactosidase was unaffected. The addition of proanthocyanidin extract to diet caused a decrease in the malondialdehyde content in the heart, kidneys, erythrocytes and blood plasma of rats. The results obtained indicate that the amount of proanthocyanidins used did not exert any antinutritional effects, but extended the pool of diet antioxidants and beneficially affected the activity of the large bowel microflora.