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): Identification of lichen substances. – Springer , Berlin, Heidelberg . Jagannadham , M. V. , Chattopadhyay , M. K. and Subbalakshmi , C. ( 2000 ): Carotenoids of an Antarctic

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. , Florou-Paneri , P. ( 2013 ) Functional properties of carotenoids originating from algae . J. Sci. Food and Agri. 93 , 5 – 11 . 12. Costa , L. S. , Fidelis , G. P

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1351 1358 Amundsen, A. L., Ntanios, F., Put, N. és mtsa: Long-term compliance and changes in plasma lipids, plant sterols and carotenoids in children and parents

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–2000 , pp. 117–121. Laurence, J. M., Morris, W. L., Hedley, P. E., Shepherd, T., Davies, H. V., Millam, S., Taylor, M. A. (2005): Metabolic engineering of high carotenoid potato tubers containing enhanced levels of ß

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Effects of fly ash amendments in soil (0%, 25% and 50% vol/vol), Ralstonia solanacearum, Meloidogyne incognita and Phomopsis vexans were observed on the growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of eggplant. Addition of 25% fly ash in soil caused a significant increase in plant growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents over plants grown without fly ash. However, amendments of 50% fly ash in soil had an adverse effect on the growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of eggplant. Inoculation of the pathogens caused a significant reduction in growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Inoculation of R. solanacearum caused the greatest reduction followed by P. vexans and M. incognita. Root galling and nematode multiplication was reduced with the increase in fly ash. Wilting and blight indices were 3 in plants grown in 0% and 25% fly ash amended soil while 4 in 50% fly ash amended soil.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
A. Pérez-López
,
P. Navarro
,
A. Soler
, and
A. Carbonell-Barrachina

Everyday consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lowered risk of cancer, hypertension and heart diseases due to the various forms of antioxidants present in these foods such as carotenoids. Besides, consumers demand organic products because they are believed to be more flavourful, healthier, and more respectful to the environment. The effects of organic farming on CIEL*a*b* colour, minerals contents, carotenoids composition and sensory quality of Clemenpons mandarin juices were studied. Organic farming of mandarins resulted in juices with higher mineral and carotenoid contents and of better sensory quality. For instance, organic juice contained a total concentration of carotenoids of 17.3 mg l−1 compared to 13.5 mg l−1 of conventional juice. Finally and in general, mandarin juices are good source of some important elements, such as potassium and antioxidants, e.g. β-cryptoxanthin.

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The effect of Mo and Co on germination percentage, early seedling growth, leaf area, root development and pigment composition (chlorophyll and carotenoids) of mung (Vigna radiata) seedling were evaluated. Mo and Co treatment at 10, 50 and 100 μM L−1 affected germination percentage, early seedling growth, leaf area, root development and pigment composition (chlorophyll and carotenoids) of mung as compared to control. It was found that 10, 50 and 100 μM concentration of Mo showed beneficial effect. However, Co at 10 μM concentration also showed beneficial effect, but at 50 and 100 μM concentration it showed toxic effect on all the parameters.

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Effects of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were studied on lentil plants inoculated with Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Meloidogyne incognita. Plant growth, chlorophyll, carotenoid contents, nitrate reductase (NR) activity and nodulation of lentil both in the presence and absence of Rhizobium sp. were examined in a pot test. Inoculation of plants with A. alternata / F. oxysporum f. sp. lentis / X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli / P. syringae pv. syringae or M. incognita caused a significant reduction in plant growth, number of pods per plant, chlorophyll, carotenoids and NR activity over uninoculated control. Inoculation of plants with Rhizobium sp. with or without pathogen increased plant growth and number of pods per plant, chlorophyll, carotenoids and NR activity. When plants were grown without Rhizobium, a foliar spray of plants with 10 ml solution of 0.1 mg ml–1of ZnO NPs per plant caused a significant increase in plant growth and number of pods, chlorophyll, carotenoid contents and NR activity in both inoculated and uninoculated plants. Spray of ZnO NPs to plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. caused non significant increase in plant growth, number of pods per plant, chlorophyll, carotenoid contents and NR activity when plants were either uninoculated or inoculated with pathogens. Numbers of nodules per root system were high in plants treated with Rhizobium sp. but foliar spray of ZnO NPs had adverse effect on nodulation. Inoculation of plants with test pathogens also reduced nodulation. Spray of ZnO NPs to plants reduced galling, nematode multiplication, wilt, blight and leaf spot disease severity indices.

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Many wheat species and cultivars, independent of genetic markers of hardness, can produce grain with a vitreous, mealy or mixed appearance. This study analyzed selected chemical and physical differences between kernels with a vitreous and mealy appearance, hand-picked from grain of four winter wheat cultivars cultivated in Poland. Separated fractions were examined for protein content and composition, friabilin presence, carotenoids and total phenolic compounds content, specific kernel density, hardness, as well as kernel surface color. It was found that the ratio of vitreous kernels in the cultivars ranged from 39.18% to 76.28%. Vitreous kernels were darker, slightly heavier and harder than mealy kernels. Additionally, these kernels were more abundant in proteins (an average increase of 2.13%, with variation among cultivars from 0.71% to 2.89%). This type of kernels was also richer in phenolic compounds (on average by 4.02%) and less abundant in carotenoids (on average by 4.53%). Mealy (softer) kernels fractured to a finer flour.

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In the present work, bio and conventional forms of spice red pepper were analysed using various high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) systems for their carotenoid, tocopherol and vitamin C contents. The carotenoid pigment was fractionated into free xanthophylls, monoesters, carotenes and diesters with newly developed reversed phase HPLC, while a -, b - and g -isomers of vitamin E were separated by normal phase chromatography. Ion-pair chromatography on a C-18 column provided good separation and quantification of vitamin C. The peppers included new resistant varieties and hybrids that are essential for bio-production. It was found that crossing new disease-resistant varieties such as Kaldom and Kalorez with susceptible ones such as Rubin and SZ-20 produced resistant hybrids that contained higher levels of quality components compared to the parents, particularly when grown and cultivated under organic farming conditions.

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