Authors:N. Gras, L. Munoz, M. Thieck, and S. Hurtado
Levels of essential and toxic trace elements in six marine species greatly in demand in the international market (canned pink clams, razor clams, clams, king crab, sardines, and frozen albacore tuna fish) were studied. A special laboratory adequately equipped for handling and preparing biological materials, is described. The elements As, Br, Na, Se, Hg, Cr, Fe, Zn and Rb were determined by INAA, while copper and cadmium content were determined using RNAA. Significant differences were found on comparing the contents of some toxic elements in mollusk and other samples of marine food. Various certified reference materials (CRMs) of the IAEA, NIST and NIES were analyzed for quality assurance purposes.
Authors:E.J. França, E.A. De Nadai Fernandes, and M.A. Bacchi
A Ni-Cr alloy was chosen as an in-house reference material for neutron flux measurement due to the well-known physical constants of the nuclides or interest and its low cost. The quantification of the Cr and Ni content was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), using certified reference materials from NIST as comparators. The concertrations and standard combined uncertainties were 19.32 ± 0.07 % for Cr and 80.2 ± 1.1 % for Ni, and the material is very homogeneous for Cr and moderate homogeneous for Ni.
A simple procedure for the determination of90Sr in environmental samples is described. The method uses the different solubilities of the oxalates of calcium and strontium in presence of a large excess of calcium. For this reason the method is especially suited for Ca-rich samples, as e.g., bones or soils. However, after addition of supplementary calcium it works equally well for other types of samples. The method was tested by analyzing the IAEA Certified Reference Materials soil, animal bone and algae.
Concentration levels of eight trace elements in 120 samples of human blood serum were investigated by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for the purpose of medical research. The elements Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se, and Zn were simultaneously determined by the relative method in comparison with inorganic standards treated under identical conditions. The process of analysis and its reliability was checked using human serum and IAEA certified reference material. Statistical results are expressed in ppm or ppb. Both normal and, if necessary, log-normal frequency distributions of all elements determined are presented, types of distribution curves are verified statistically on 95% level of probability.
126 samples of scalp hair from inhabitants of Central Bohemia were searched for content of zinc, cobalt, cesium, chromium, scandium, selenium, and iron, for the purpose of medical research. Simultaneous determination of the elements was made by INAA. Inorganic standards were used for calculation of concentrations of elements. Quality assurance was checked by IAEA certified reference material and by internal standard mixed human serum. Statistical results are expressed in ppm, or ppb. Both normal and, if necessary, log-normal distributions of elements are presented, and types of distribution curves are verified statistically on 95% level of probability.
A new method is presented for the determination of Au and Pt in biological materials based on neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation of gold. Separation of gold by electrolytic deposition on a niobium cathode ascertains the highest radiochemical purity without any interference from calcium or other major elements. With199Au as indicator for platinum the gold content of the sample not only strongly affects the limit of detection, but also causes interference by double neutron capture. Replicate analyses of BCR Certified Reference Materials No. 184, 185 and 186 were carried out.
The selenium content of a variety of food items representing a normal hospital diet has been determined by cyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis (CINAA) through the 162-keV gamma-ray of the77mSe nuclide. The CINAA method is very simple and rapid. It involves irradiation of a sample for 20 s, decay for 20 s, and counting for 20 s. The precision of the method has been significantly improved by recycling the samples up to 4 times. The accuracy has been evaluated by analyzing a number of certified reference materials of varied selenium levels.
The comparability of analytical results from different laboratories requires accurately known concentrations in the applied standards. Dilution effects of different multielement synthetic standard solutions have been studied by measuring 10–12 different concentrations of the same solution. Peak area comparison of four Certified Reference Materials (CRM's) using one value for the evaluation of the other three repetitively led to the intercomparison (degree of compatibility) of the certified values. The idea of the preparation of each laboratory's secondary reference standard by comparison of synthetic multielement standards with as many CRM's as practically feasible is advocated to improve the reliability of analytical results.
Authors:G. Wauters, C. Vandecasteele, K. Strijckmans, and J. Hoste
Cadmium, thallium and lead are determined in environmental samples using the111,112,113Cd(p,xn)111In,203Tl(p,3n)201Pb and206,207,208Pb(p,xn)206Bi reactions.111In.201Pb and206Bi are chemically separated by anion exchange and anodic deposition of lead(IV). oxide. Detection limits are 6, 44 and 25 ng/g for cadmium, thallium and lead, respectively. The results obtained for certified reference materials are in good agreement with the certified values.
Authors:S. Heller-Zeisler, M. Donais, and R. Zeisler
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been employed in the investigation of mass balance for mercury species
analysis in the analytical process. A new human hair reference material (IAEA-085) was analyzed for methylmercury using a
solid/liquid extraction procedure, with samples of extracts, residues, and untreated samples being analyzed by INAA. The certified
reference material NIES CRM No. 13, human hair, was analyzed in parallel. From the results obtained through the mass balance
studies, it was found that the extraction procedure was quantitatively complete, and that there was no difference between
the mass balance of Hg and the total Hg in the untreated materials.