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Abstract  

It is proposed to use 14 MeV neutrons tagged by the associated particle neutron time-of-flight technique (APnTOF) to identify the fillers of unexploded ordnances (UXO) by characterizing their carbon, nitrogen and oxygen contents. To facilitate the design and construction of a prototype system, a preliminary simulation model was developed, using the Geant4 toolkit. This work established the toolkit environment for (a) generating tagged neutrons, (b) their transport and interactions within a sample to induce emission and detection of characteristic gamma-rays, and (c) 2D and 3D-image reconstruction of the interrogated object using the neutron and gamma-ray time-of-flight information. Using the modeling, this article demonstrates the novelty of the tagged-neutron approach for extracting useful signals with high signal-to-background discrimination of an object-of-interest from that of its environment. Simulations indicated that an UXO filled with the RDX explosive, hexogen (C3H6O6N6), can be identified to a depth of 20 cm when buried in soil.

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Abstract  

4-Chloro-2-methoxybenzoates of light lanthanides(III) were obtained as mono-, di-or trihydrates with metal to ligand ratio of 1:3 and general formula Ln(C8H6ClO3)3·nH2O, where n=1 for Ln=Ce, Pr, n=2 for Ln=Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and n=3 for Ln=La. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, thermogravimetric studies, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. The carboxylate group appears to be a symmetrical bidentate, chelating ligand. All complexes seem polycrystalline compounds. Their thermal stabilities were determined in air. When heated they dehydrate to form anhydrous salts which next are decomposed to the oxides of the respective metals. The solubilities of light lanthanide(III) 4-chloro-2-methoxybenzoates in water at 293 K are of the order of 10−5 mol dm−3. The magnetic moments were determined over the range of 77–300 K. They obey the Curie-Weiss law. The values of μeff calculated for all compounds are close to those obtained for Ln3+ by Hund and Van Vleck. The results indicate that there is no influence of the ligand field of 4f electrons on lanthanide ions and the metal ligand bonding is mainly electrostatic in nature.

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Abstract  

A flow microcalorimeter has been used to determine excess enthanlpies (H E) at 298.15 K for binary mixtures of dimethylsulfoxide (1)+alkylbenzenes (benzene, methylbenzene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene and sec-propylbenzene, n-butylbenzene, sec-butylbenzene and tert-butylbenzene) or tetrachloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloroethane, dichloromethane and monochloroalkanes (1-chloropropane, 1-chlorobutane, 1-chloropentane, 1-chlorohexane) (2). These data with the data available in the literature on the molar excess enthalpies (H E), molar excess Gibbs energies (G E), activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γi , liquid-vapour equilibria (LVE) and liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)+n-alkanes, cyclohexane, benzene or alkylbenzenes (mono-, dialkyl-and trialkyl-) or tetrachloromethane, trichloromethane, dichloromethane and monochloroalkanes are treated in the framework of DISQUAC, an extended quasi-chemical group contribution theory. The systems are characterized by three types of contact surfaces: sulfoxide (S=O group), aliphatic (CH3, CH2, CH groups), cycloaliphatic (c-CH2 group), aromatic (C6H6, C6H5 groups) and chlorine (C1 group). Using a set of adjusted contact interchange energies parameters, structure dependent, the model provides a fairly consistent description of the thermodynamic properties as a function of concentration. The model may serve to predict missing data.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
W. Ferenc
,
A. Dziewulska-Kułaczkowska
,
J. Sarzyński
, and
B. Paszkowska

Abstract  

4-Chloro-2-methoxybenzoates of heavy lanthanides(III) and yttrium(III) were obtained as mono-, di-, tri-or tetrahydrates with metal to ligand ratio of 1:3 and general formula Ln(C8H6ClO3)3·nH2O, where n=1 for Ln=Er, n=2 for Ln=Tb, Dy, Tm, Y, n=3 for Ln=Ho and n=4 for Yb and Lu. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectra, TG, DTA and DSC curves, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. The carboxylate group appears to be a symmetrical bidentate chelating ligand. All complexes are polycrystalline compounds. The values of enthalpy, ΔH, of the dehydration process for analysed complexes were also determined. The solubilities of heavy lanthanide(III) 4-chloro-2-methoxybenzoates in water at 293 K are of the order of 10−4 mol dm−3. The magnetic moments were determined over the range of 76–303 K. The results indicate that there is no influence of the ligand field of 4f electrons on lanthanide ions and the metal ligand bonding is mainly electrostatic in nature.

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Abstract  

The paper presents the conditions under which compounds of the commercial herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D; C8H6O3Cl2) and 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid (2,4DP; C9H8O3Cl2), with lead(II) and cadmium(II) are formed and the results of the examination of their properties.On the basis of the elemental analysis and Pb and Cd determination, the following molecular formulae for the obtained compounds were proposed: Pb(C8H5O3Cl2)2.H2O, Cd(C8H5O3Cl2)2.2H2O, Pb(C9H7O3Cl2)2·H2O and Cd(C9H7O3Cl2)2·H2O. Water solubility of the synthesized complexes at room temperature was examined. X-ray powder analysis was carried out. The discussion of IR spectra and conductivity data is presented. Thermal decomposition of these compounds in air was studied by TG/MS methods.

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Abstract  

Selenium nuclides are available from thermal neutron induced nuclear fission of 235U at the gas-jet facility at the Swiss spallation neutron source (SINQ) at Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. The formation of stable selenium compounds, their transport yields using the gas-jet system and their relative thermal decomposition temperature were investigated under oxidizing and reducing conditions in the target chamber. Using O2, H2, CO, and propene as additional gases, the selenium isotopes are suggested to form H2SeO3, H2Se, COSe, and C3H6Se, respectively, with overall 84Se yields of 1.5%, 4.7%, 6.3%, and 21.9%, respectively. Adsorption enthalpy, vapour pressure, solubility and acidity data for these species were collected from the literature or estimated from other known thermochemical properties. Carrier free bromine isotopes (84Br, 86Br) in the form of HOBr were obtained by thermally decomposing H2SeO3 and retaining elemental Se under oxygen rich conditions on quartz at 400 K.

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Abstract  

Extraction of Mo(VI) by 4-(5-nonyl)pyridine (NPy) in benzene from mineral acid solutions containing thiocyanate ions has been investigated at room temperature (23±2°C). From mineral acid (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4) solutions alone Mo(VI) is not extracted quantitatively while the presence of small amounts of KSCN in the system augments the extraction by a large factor. Stoichiometric studies indicate that ion-pair type complexes (NPyH)2·[MoO2(SCN)4] are responsible for the extraction. Separation factors determined at fixed extraction conditions (0.1M Npy/C6H6–0.1M acid +0.2M KSCN) reveal that Ag(I), Cu(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Hg(II) and U(VI) are co-extracted while a clean separation from alkali metals, alkaline earths and some transition metals like Ln(III), Zr(IV), Hf(IV), Cr(III), Cr(VI) and Ir(III) is possible. Some of the complexing anions like oxalate, citrate, acetate, thiosulfate or ascorbate do not affect the degree of extraction of Mo(VI) allowing it to be recovered from diverse matrices.

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Abstract  

We studied the extraction of phosphomolybdic acid labelled with99Mo and32P and of other species extracted. From the influence of the acidity and of the concentration of excess molybdenum on the distribution coefficient of phosphorus, we propose the following equilibrium for the formation of phosphomolybdate in our experimental conditions

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$12/7H_6 Mo_7 O_{24} + H_3 PO_4 \rightleftharpoons PMo_{12} O_{40}^{3 - } + 3H^ + + 36/7H_2 O.$$ \end{document}
We show that the best yield of extraction is obtained with isobutyl acetate. From the relation between the quantities of molybdenum and phosphorus extracted, extraction of free molybdenum has been shown. It can be eliminated by washing the organic phase with a 5M HNO3 solution. Subsequently we test a method using radioactive molybdenum, proposed by J. E. KENNEY and M. P. MENON1 for the titration of phosphorus in steels. Because of the presence of interfering elements (Nb, Zr, Ti, V, Si, etc.) specific conditions for the extraction of phosphomolybdic acid have to be found for the application of this method to steels.

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Abstract  

Human, animal (cow, buffalo and goat) and commercial milk powders (for infants and adults) have been analyzed for 5 minor (Na, K, Mg, Cl and P) and 13 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, As, Se, Sb, Cs and Br) by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation. Milk standards NIST SRM 1549 and IAEA A-11 along with diet standards RM 8431 a and IAEA H-9 were also analyzed for quality assurance. The method involves thermal neutron irradiation for 10 m, 1 h, 6 h and 1 week in a reactor followed by high resolution -spectrometry. Concentrations of Fe, Co, Zn, Sb, and Se were also determined by radiochemical solvent extraction. Mean concentrations of Na, K, Mg, P, Cl, Fe, Mn and Cu in human milk (colostrum) are comparable with that of a WHO/IAEA study. It has, however, lower contents of toxic trace elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Br, Se, Sb and As) compared to breast tissue from the same area. Cow milk is richer in Na, K, Cl, Mn and Se but it has comparable amounts of Mg, Zn, Br, Fe and Sb with respect to breast milk. Significant differences have been observed for elemental concentrations of Na, K, P and Fe in commercial formula milk powders for infants and adults. Infant's milk powders contain all the nutrient elements in balanced amounts required for the higher growth rate of a child.

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Abstract  

The order of extraction of Mo(VI) from 1M acid solutions by 5% (v/v) LIX 622 (HL) in benzene is HCl>HNO3>HClO4>H2SO4, and extraction decreases with increasing concentration of HCl and H2SO4, and increases slightly with increasing concentration of HNO3 and HClO4. The extracted species is shown to be MoO2L2 as established by IR data of organic extracts and the extracted species in the solid form. Extraction is almost quantitative at and above 10% LIX 622, and is found to be independent of [Mo(VI)] in the range of 10–4 to 10–3 M. The diluents CCl4, CHCl3 and C6H6 are found to be superior to solvents of high dielectric constant for extraction of Mo(VI). Extraction of uranium(VI) by 10% (v/v) LIX 622 in benzene was found to increase with increasing equilibrium pH (3.0 to 6.0), and becomes quantitative at pH 5.9. Tributyl phosphate acts as a modifier up to 2% (v/v). Thorium(IV) is almost not extracted by LIX 622 or its mixture. Separation of Mo(VI) and U(VI) is feasible.

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