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Infectious bursal disease virus is an important poultry pathogen. It is distributed worldwide and causes significant economic losses. In this study, a system was adopted for the simultaneous monitoring of vaccine and virulent strains using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After the decay of maternal antibodies, chickens were vaccinated at the age of 37 days with a virus of intermediate virulence and challenged at 5, 10 and 14 days post vaccination (dpv). The challenge was done with IBDV strain CH/99. Sequencing of the hypervariable region of VP2 has shown that CH/99 belongs to the very virulent group of viruses. The vaccine virus could be found in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and bone marrow until 24 dpv. The CH/99 challenge virus was found in the bursa and lymphoid organs when chickens were challenged at 5 and 10 dpv. When challenge was performed at 14 dpv, the pathogenic virus could not be found in the bursa and other lymphoid organs.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Ilona Mihály
,
Tímea Kolozsi
,
Zoltán Liptai
,
Adrienn Lukács
,
Péter Molnár
,
József Budai
,
Géza Prinz
,
Anita Ábrahám
,
Miklósné Palánszky
, and
Józsefné Dóczy

reverse transcription-PCR to reveal cellular changes during stimuli that result in Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 reactivation from latency. J. Virol., 1998, 72 , 1252–1261. Lasner T. M

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A survey was conducted to evaluate the presence and prevalence of Porcine Bocavirus (PBoV) in Croatian domestic pigs by means of PCR targeting the NS1 gene fragment of PBoV. This study included testing of faecal samples collected from 10 small commercial farms and 11 small backyard holdings in Croatia. The presence of PBoV was confirmed by PCR in 24 out of 57 composite faecal samples from small commercial farms and in 12 out of 43 composite faecal samples from small backyard holdings. The PCR products of 18 positive samples were sequenced for genotyping. PBoV sequences grouped into the PBoV-a, PBoV-b and PBoV-c groups with 90.81% to 99.25% nucleotide identity. All Croatian PBoV sequences showed a high nucleotide and amino acid identity with PBoV sequences from China and Hong Kong, the United States, Sweden, and Slovenia. These results clearly show that PBoV is circulating among the domestic pig population in Croatia.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Sergio Villanueva-Saz
,
Jacobo Giner
,
Antonio Fernández
,
María Magdalena Alcover
,
Cristina Riera
,
Roser Fisa
,
Andrés Yzuel
,
Ana González
,
Diana Marteles
, and
Maite Verde

detect parasitic nucleic acids by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) including conventional PCR, nested PCR and quantitative PCR; and finally serological methods based on the detection of a specific IgG response against L. infantum , including enzyme

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Alexandra Valenčáková
,
P. Bálent
,
M. Húska
,
F. Novotný
, and
Lenka Luptáková

Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection of sows is reported from a pig farm in Slovakia. Spores were detected by direct microscopic visualisation in the faeces of 25 out of 27 sows (92.6%). This finding was also supported serologically by the presence of specific anti-E. intestinalis antibodies and by a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This is the first report on E. intestinalis infection of swine in Europe.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
L. Sámi
,
Krisztina Ursu
,
J. McKillen
,
S. Kecskeméti
,
S. Belák
, and
I. Kiss

Specific oligonucleotide primers were selected and combined in a multiplex arrangement, in order to detect simultaneously three economically important porcine viruses by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The pathogen panel was comprised of viruses that cause reproductive failure in infected herds: Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV), porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV). In order to reduce the time required for the detection of the pathogens, the assay was optimised to a RapidCycler PCR instrument. The multiplex PCR assay was shown to be specific, sensitive and rapid, because the results were read in less than 60 min after sample preparation. Due to its speed, efficiency and sensitivity, the described rapid multiplex PCR assay serves as a useful novel tool in the veterinary diagnostic laboratories for the quick and complex detection of these important porcine pathogens.

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For the molecular detection of Treponema pallidum authors introduced and used a nested PCR amplifying a conservative portion of the gene coding for the Tp 47 kDa membrane protein. PCR verified the presence of T. pallidum specific DNA in 5.7 per cent of syphilis seronegative 105 MSM belonging to HIV risk group. Treponema DNA was also detected in HIV infected, syphilis seronegative cases. Specificity of the method was demonstrated in rabbit inoculation test and also in clinically positive syphilis cases.

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Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are spread throughout the world, including Slovenia, where the first evidence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was found in 1996. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and genetic characteristics of SRLV infection in Slovenia in order to classify our strains in relation to other known SRLV strains worldwide as well as to establish molecular techniques in concordance with serology. In this study, 340 goats and sheep were tested. Serological examination revealed that 57% of the goats and only 14% of the sheep were seropositive. The results of this study also show that the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used in this study is less reliable than ELISA, with only 60.6% of the seropositive animals being PCR positive. Thirty-eight nucleotide sequences of the gag region encoding the matrix protein were determined and compared to sequences derived from the GenBank, revealing that Slovenian SRLV strains belong to sequence groups A and B, being maedivisna virus (MVV) and CAEV-like, respectively. In one goat herd, the presence of more than one genotype was confirmed and the majority of goat SRLV sequences were more closely related to MVV than to CAEV prototype strains.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Dajana Davitkov
,
Darko Davitkov
,
Milos Vucicevic
,
Ljubodrag Stanisic
,
Milena Radakovic
,
Uros Glavinic
, and
Zoran Stanimirovic

Equine piroplasmosis in donkeys has been recognised as a serious problem of major economic importance. The present molecular study is the first investigation of the presence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Balkan donkeys and of the possible haematological alterations related to it. A total of 70 apparently healthy donkeys from Serbia were included in this study. The overall prevalence of T. equi infection in donkeys tested with multiplex PCR was 50%. There was no B. caballi-positive sample. Infections in donkeys included in this study seem to be associated with decreased red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and platelet count, and with increased white blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Altered haematological parameters in donkeys can lead to a decrease in working capacity and production performance. Further molecular research and long-term monitoring of equine piroplasmosis is needed in Serbia and throughout Europe.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Zaira Moure
,
Elena Cuadros
,
Daniel Pablo-Marcos
,
María José Reina
,
Inés de Benito
, and
Ana Belén Campo

on real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), are the main tools for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, the diagnosis was initially centralized at reference hospitals, with well-equipped microbiology departments and qualified staff [ 2 , 3 ]. Within a few weeks, new

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