The aim of the paper is to estimate cost efficiency and its determinants of the Czech and Slovak commercial banks within the period of 2005–2015. In this paper two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used. In the first stage, I estimate the relative cost efficiency applying the input-oriented model with variable return to scale and find that the Czech banks were more cost efficient than the Slovak banks. The main reason of cost inefficiency is the excess of clients' deposits in the banks' balance sheet. In the second stage, I use the panel data analysis and estimate the determinants of cost efficiency in the two countries. I choose 8 bank-specific and macroeconomic factors that influence cost efficiency. The results show that the larger banks with higher liquidity risk and with a lower value of the net interest margin were more efficient. It confirms the reason of inefficiency determined from the DEA model. Banks were highly cost efficient during the economic expansion with a lower value of the inflation rate.
Authors:Habibollah Nakhaei, Nik Intan Norhan Hamid, Melati Ahmad Anuar, and Karim Nakhaei
The paper tests the hypothesis on whether refined economic value added (REVA) is highly associated with stock return compared to traditional performance measures. The goal of the study is to provide empirical evidence on the relative and incremental information content of REVA and traditional performance measures, such as net income (NI), net operational profit after tax (NOPAT), and earning per share (EPS). The study involves 395 non-financial companies listed in Bursa Malaysia over the period of 2002–2011. Pearson correlation coefficient and panel data single and multiple regression models were employed to analyze the data. The empirical results indicate that the relative information content of the REVA was not greater than that of NI and NOPAT to explain stock returns. NI and NOPAT were highly correlated with stock return compared to REVA. Additionally, the incremental information content test indicated that REVA makes some additional contribution to information content beyond the NI, NOPAT, and EPS. Finally, the panel multiple regression models showed that there was a strong relationship between NI, NOPAT, and REVA with stock return, but there was no meaningful association between EPS and stock returns. Overall, the results do not support the hypothesis that REVA can be considered superior to traditional accounting measures in association with stock returns.
Authors:Zsuzsanna Banász and Vivien Valéria Csányi
Education is one of the key factors of economic growth. Despite the huge amount of researches investigating the relationship between education and GDP as a proxy of well-being, to the best of our knowledge, none of these studies examined a group of post-socialist countries comparing with not-post-socialist countries. This paper aims to fill this gap. We examine the correlation between growth and education with panel data evidence for 18 post-socialist (PS) countries and 16 developed market economies (DME) over the 1990–2014 period. The goal of this paper is to test two hypotheses: (i) The relationship between GDP per capita and tertiary education’s enrolment rate is stronger in the post-socialist countries than in other countries. (ii) In the post-socialist countries, the relationship between GDP per capita and tertiary education’s enrolment rate is stronger than the relationship between GDP per capita and any other level of education. Correlation analyses confirmed both hypotheses. Our findings suggest that the patterns of relationship between GDP and measures of tertiary education are different for PS and DME countries and would be interesting to observe when and how the gap between the patterns disappears.
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