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Abstract  

This paper describes two recent studies by the Science and Engineering Policy Studies Unit (SEPSU). The first is a comparative evaluation of national performance in basic research — an exploration of methodology and extensive data on several facets of national performance. The second deals with the migration of scientists and engineers to and from the UK, and reports a more complex picture than some commentators had expected.

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Abstract  

In this paper we present the explorations of combining the two main pillars of evaluative bibliometrics. These two pillars, performance analysis and science mapping, both have their strengths and imperfections. In this study we show how these imperfections are dealt with by an integrated analysis.

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Scientometrics
Authors: Isabel Gómez, María Bordons, M. Fernández, and Fernanda Morillo

Abstract  

The aim of this paper is to describe Spanish universities by means of structural, input and output indicators, to explore the relationship between those indicators and to analyse university behaviour in different dimensions. Seniority of the universities and environmental conditions are taken into account, together with input and output indicators, as well as others related to the networks and links established. Our results will contribute to the knowledge of the university research system in Spain, producing data that could be useful for research management at the institutional, regional and national level.

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Abstract  

The study aims at designing a set of indicators which, integrated altogether, should be albe to inform on the kind of research published in journal articles and its proximity to their specific forefornts. The set of indicators is composed of two subsets, one including information of the authors, research performers indicators, and other embodying information of the references used, source indicators. The source indicators are compared with the references pattern of specific paradigmatic journals used as standard framework of the research field. Three case studies dealing with the Spanish research on Immunology, Neurosciences and Pharmacognosy will be presented. The application of the indicators gave the following results: Spanish Immunology published in foreign journals was basic in its scope while the one published in domestric journals dealt with applied and clinical Medicine. Neuroscience publsiedh in foreign journals by financed Hospitals appertained to the forefront and presented a broad scope, Neuroscience Published in foreign journals by non-financed Hospitals was applied research and Neuroscience published by Universities, also in foreign journals, represented basic research done in a closed system. The case of Spanish Pharmacognosy is more difficult to interpret as three subject fields are involved (Pharmacology, Chemistry and Botany). The indicators did not clearly differentiate between the research published in domestic and foreign journals, although it seems that Spanish scientists are more interested in the pharmacological and botanical aspect of the natural products than in their chemical structure.

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Abstract  

We provide a comprehensive and critical review of the h-index and its most important modifications proposed in the literature, as well as of other similar indicators measuring research output and impact. Extensions of some of these indices are presented and illustrated.

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Abstract  

This contribution focuses on the application of bibliometric techniques to research activities in China, based on data extracted from the Science Citation Index (SCI) and related Citation Indexes, produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). The main conclusion is that bibliometric analyses based on the ISI databases in principle provide useful and valid indicators of the international position of Chinese research activities, provided that these analyses deal properly with the relatively large number of national Chinese journals covered by the ISI indexes. It is argued that it is important to distinguish between a national and an international point of view. In order to assess the Chinese research activities from a national perspective, it is appropriate to use the scientific literature databases with a good coverage of Chinese periodicals, such as the Chinese Science Citation Database (CSCD), produced at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Assessment of the position of Chinese research from an international perspective should be based on the ISI databases, but it is suggested to exclude national Chinese journals from this analysis. In addition it is proposed to compute an indicator of international publication activity, defined as the percentage of articles in journals processed for the ISI indexes, with the national Chinese journals being removed, relative to the total number of articles published either in national Chinese or in other journals, regardless of whether these journals are processed for the ISI indexes or not. This indicator can only be calculated by properly combining CSCD and ISI indexes.

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Introduction Since the publication of Hirsch's paper in 2005 that proposes what is now called the ‘ h -index’ as a way to quantify an individual's research performance, many other metrics have been developed and promoted as

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Abstract  

A severe criticism against the use of citation indicators for the measurement of a research group's performance holds that these indicators reflect at least partly the size of the scientific activity in the subfield or topic in which the group works. In this contribution an attempt is made to substantiate this claim within the framework of Price's theory on the processes of knowledge growth. Empirical evidence is presented that among a number of subfields from the natural and life sciences significant differences exist with respect to Price's index, and that the citation scores of research groups tend to be high in subfields showing a high value of Price's index and other characteristics of reference patterns. These findings suggest that groups sharing an intellectual focus with other researchers tend to obtain higher citation scores than groups working more on their own.

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Abstract  

Cross-field comparison of citation measures of scientific achievement or research quality is severely hindered by the diversity of the stage of development and citation habits of different disciplines or fields. Based on the same principles of RCR (Relative Citation Rate) and RW (Relative Subfield Citedness), a new dimension — the Relative Superiority Coefficient (SC n) in research quality was introduced. This can indicate clearly the relative research level for research groups at multiple levels in the respective field by consistent criteria in terms of research quality. Comparison of the SC n within or across 22 broad fields among 5 countries were presented as an application model. Hierarchical Cluster and One-Way ANOVA were applied and processed by the statistical program SPSS. All original data were from Essential Science Indicators (ESI) 1996–2006.

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Abstract  

This paper examines policy-relevant effects of a yearly public ranking of individual researchers and their institutes in economics by means of their publication output in international top journals. In 1980, a grassroots ranking (‘Top 40’) of researchers in the Netherlands by means of their publications in international top journals started a competition among economists. The objective was to improve economics research in the Netherlands to an internationally competitive level. The ranking lists did stimulate output in prestigious international journals. Netherlands universities tended to perform well compared to universities elsewhere in the EU concerning volume of output in ISI source journals, but their citation impact was average. Limitations of ranking studies and of bibliometric monitoring in the field of economics are discussed.

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