Authors:S. Mikheev, V. Sharnin, V. Shormanov, and M. Talanova
The integral heat effects of CuCl2 dissolution in aqueous DMSO, aqueous ethanol and aqueous acetone solutions at 298. 15 K in the electrolyte concentration
range 0.001–0.01M were measured by means of calorimetry. ΔHsol0
values were obtained by extrapolation to zero electrolyte concentration. Literature data were used to determine the thermodynamic
characteristics of Cu2+ transfer from water to aqueous organic solvents.
Vitrification is currently considered to be an effective method for immobilization of radioactive waste. It is based on the enclosing of harmful elements in the structure of the glass. This work presents the results of studies on the thermal properties of glasses from P2O5–Al2O3–Na2O and P2O5–Al2O3–Fe2O3–Na2O systems for rendering nuclear waste in the form of salts such as sulfates, halides, and phosphates with high sodium content. These substances are not accepted by borosilicate glass, commonly used up to now for nuclear waste immobilization. Formation of sinters of glass-waste mixtures was selected as the method for immobilization, and the thermal chemistry of this process was studied. CaCl2 was used as the model chloride waste substance. The process of immobilization consists of its sintering with Na, Al, Fe-phosphate glasses containing more than 50 wt% P2O5 as the amorphous matrix. Thermal analysis showed that all glasses exhibit an ability for crystallization, with that the intensiveness of this process is determined by the chemical composition of these glasses. The addition of Fe2O3 to the glass intensified crystallization process. Leaching of components of sinters tests established that glass containing Fe2O3 in its composition most effectively binds waste in comparison to Al2O3 containing phosphate glass. The test results allow for the statement that the waste substance in the form of chloride salts such as CaCl2 is stable bound in the glass–crystalline sinters, which ensures its effective immobilization.
Authors:Y. P. Liu, Y. Y. Di, W. Y. Dan, D. H. He, Y. X. Kong, and W. W. Yang
Dodecylamine hydrochloride C12H25NH3·Cl(s) and bis-dodecylammonium tetrachlorozincate (C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4(s) were synthesized by the method of liquid phase reaction. The constant-volume energy of combustion of dodecylamine hydrochloride was measured by means of a RBC-II precision rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter at T = (298.15 ± 0.001) K. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of C12H25NH3·Cl(s) was calculated to be
(C12H25NH3·Cl, s) = −(706.79 ± 3.97) kJ mol−1 from the constant-volume energy of combustion. In accordance with Hess’ law, a reasonable thermochemical cycle was designed and the enthalpy change of the synthesis reaction of the complex (C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4(s) was determined by use of an isoperibol solution-reaction calorimeter. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of (C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4(s) was calculated as
[(C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4, s] = −(1862.14 ± 7.95) kJ mol−1 from the standard molar enthalpy of formation of C12H25NH3·Cl(s) and other auxiliary thermodynamic data.
Authors:J. C. J. Bart, A. Bossi, P. Perissinoto, A. Castellan, and N. Giordano
The thermal degradation of H6TeO6 in air has been evaluated critically. Evidence is presented for a decomposition mechanism involving step-wise dehydration of H6TeO6 via non-stoichiometric amorphous solids to polymetatelluric acid and up to a composition corresponding to pyrotelluric acid. No morphological changes were observed during these structural variations and no evidence was found for the formation of allotelluric acid. Further dehydration is accompanied by reduction, which, depending upon the experimental conditions accounts for the considerable variety of results reported previously. Crystalline Te(VI)-Te(IV) oxides are obtained at about 550‡ from which TeO2 is formed by additional calcination at about 620‡.
Hexachlorohafnates of pyridine and its three methyl-substituted derivatives were synthesized and examined by the thermoanalytical
methods. The van't Hoff equation employed for the thermogravimetric αvs. T dependencies enabled evaluation of the heats of the thermal dissociation and subsequently enthalpies of formation and crystal
lattice energies of the salts. Geometry and energy of formation of HfCl
was determined at the ab initio Hartree-Fock SCF level, using all electron MINI basis set augmented with standard polarization
functions (MINI*). Electron correlation was considered at the MP2 level. Thermodynamic characteristics for the latter species were also obtained
combining ab initio results with those of statistical thermodynamics. The usefulness of theoretical methods in examination
of solid state energetics is briefly discussed.
/kJ mol−1 = −259.0 ± 1.6 (LiSC2H5), −199.9 ± 1.8 (NaSC2H5), −254.9 ± 2.4 (NaSC4H9), −240.6 ± 1.9 (KSC2H5), −235.8 ± 2.0 (CsSC2H5). These results where compared with the literature values for the corresponding alkoxides and together with values for
of the liquid 2-methylfuran, 5-methyl-2-acetylfuran and 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde were derived from the standard molar energies
of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The Calvet high temperature vacuum sublimation technique was
used to measure the enthalpies of vaporization of the three compounds. The standard (po = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K have been derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of formation in the liquid phase and the standard
molar enthalpies of vaporization. The results obtained were −(76.4 ± 1.2), −(253.9 ± 1.9), and −(196.8 ± 1.8) kJ mol−1, for 2-methylfuran, 5-methyl-2-acetylfuran, and 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde, respectively.
Authors:S. Gao, S. Chen, G. Xie, G. Fan, and Q. Shi
Summary A ternary solid complex Gd(Et2dtc)3(phen) has been obtained from reactions of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (NaEt2dtc), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and hydrated gadolinium chloride in absolute ethanol. The title complex was described by chemical and elemental analyses, TG-DTG and IR spectrum. The enthalpy change of liquid-phase reaction of formation of the complex, ΔrHΘm(l), was determined as (-11.628±0.0204) kJ mol-1 at 298.15 K by a RD-496 III heat conduction microcalorimeter. The enthalpy change of the solid-phase reaction of formation of the complex, ΔrHΘm(s), was calculated as (145.306±0.519) kJ mol-1 on the basis of a designed thermochemical cycle. The thermodynamics of reaction of formation of the complex was investigated by changing the temperature of liquid-phase reaction. Fundamental parameters, the apparent reaction rate constant (k), the apparent activation energy (E), the pre-exponential constant (A), the reaction order (n), the activation enthalpy (ΔrHΘ≠), the activation entropy (ΔrSΘ≠), the activation free energy (ΔrGΘ≠) and the enthalpy (ΔrHΘ≠), were obtained by combination of the thermodynamic and kinetic equations for the reaction with the data of thermokinetic experiments. The constant-volume combustion energy of the complex, ΔcU, was determined as (-18673.71±8.15) kJ mol-1 by a RBC-II rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K. Its standard enthalpy of combustion, ΔcHΘm, and standard enthalpy of formation, ΔfHΘm, were calculated to be (-18692.92±8.15) kJ mol-1 and (-51.28±9.17) kJ mol-1, respectively.
Enthalpy of solution, ΔHsolo
, enthalpy of sublimation, ΔHsublo
, apparent partial molar volume and heat capacities,V2o
were determined for aqueous solutions of thirty alkylated derivatives of uracyl and adenine, eight derivatives of cytosine
and guanine. Calculated accessible surface areas and molar volumes are presented, too. The values of enthalpy of solution,
enthalpy of sublimation can be useful in the studies on the nature of interaction between these compounds and water molecules.
Apparent partial molar volume and heat capacity give a new aspect on hydrophob properties of the examined nucleic acid base