Alkaline fading of bromophenol blue was chosen for the investigation of the effect of heating rate on the activation energies derived from the dynamic kinetic method. Freeman and Carroll's treatment was adopted to compute the activation energies from experimental data taken with three heating rates: namely 1°, 0.5° and 0.25°/min. It was found that the activation energy increases as the heating rate decreases. This is attributed to the non-equilibrium conditions. By extrapolating to zero heating rate, the activation energy obtained is comparable to that obtained via classical isothermal kinetics.
The high-temperature phase transition of K2SeO4 was studied by using differential thermal analysis. The Kissinger equation and the Mahadevan approximation were applied to evaluate the effective phase transition activation energy (E). The average value ofE was 12.85 ±0.04 eV.
Activation energies (E) of the thermal decomposition and the initial valuesTD of the exotherms are determined for trinitroaniline, trinitro-m-phenylenediamine, trinitrotriaminobenzene, trinitrophenol, trinitroresorcinol, trinitro-m-cresol and hexanitrooxanilide. Linear relationships are derived between the termsE.TD1− and published kinetics data on these compounds, obtained by an isothermal manometric method. The mechanisms of the primary steps in the thermolyses of these polynitro compounds are discussed. A positive influence on their thermal stability has been confirmed, arising from the contact of the measured compounds with the glass surface.
Authors:S. R. Dharwadkar, A. B. Phadnis, M. S. Chandrasekharaiah, and M. D. Karkhanavala
A simple approach to determine the activation energy (E) of solid-state decomposition reactions is described. The activation energy is calculated from the slope of the logarithm of the maximum peak height of the isothermal DTA trace versus the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. The proposed method is applied in the study of the kinetics of thermal decomposition of cadmium carbonate. The activation energy calculated from this method (90.8±2.2 kJ mole−1) is in very good agreement with the value (87.5±2.5 kJ mole−1) obtained by the conventional method.
Augis and Bennett (J. Thermal Anal. 13 (1978) 283.)  recently proposed a modified Kissinger method for determining the activation energy of a transformation. It is shown that the proposed method was, in fact, based upon a modification to the equation for the rate of reaction under non-isothermal conditions. The apparent discrepancy between the proposed method and the original Kissinger method is therefore resolved. The modified rate equation appears to have, at best, only a limited application. However, if the equation should be appropriate for a particular transformation, it is demonstrated that Augis and Bennett's method would be the correct method for determining the activation energy.
survey argues that the theory, conventionally used to interpret kinetic data
measured for thermal reactions of initially solid reactants, is not always
suitable for elucidating reaction chemistry and mechanisms or for identifying
reactivity controls. Studies of solid-state decompositions published before
the 1960s usually portrayed the reaction rate as determined by Arrhenius type
models closely related to those formulated for homogeneous rate processes,
though scientific justifications for these parallels remained incompletely
established. Since the 1960s, when thermal analysis techniques were developed,
studies of solid-state decompositions contributed to establishment of the
new experimental techniques, but research interest became redirected towards
increasing the capabilities of automated equipment to collect, to store and
later to analyze rate changes for selected reactions. Subsequently, much less
attention has been directed towards chemical features of the rate processes
studied, which have included a range of reactants that is much more diverse
than the simple solid-state reactions with which early thermokinetic studies
were principally concerned. Moreover, the theory applied to these various
reactants does not recognize the possible complexities of behaviour that may
include mechanisms involving melting and/or concurrent/consecutive reactions,
etc. The situation that has arisen following, and attributable to, the eclipse
of solid-state decomposition studies by thermal analysis, is presented here
and the consequences critically discussed in a historical context. It is concluded
that methods currently used for kinetic and mechanistic investigations of
all types of thermal reactions indiscriminately considered by the same, but
inadequate theory, are unsatisfactory. Urgent and fundamental reappraisal
of the theoretical foundations of thermokinetic chemical studies is now necessary
While there are important, but hitherto unrecognized,
delusions in thermokinetic methods and theories, an alternative theoretical
explanation that accounts for many physical and chemical features of crystolysis
reactions has been proposed. However, this novel but general model for the
thermal behaviour and properties of solids has similarly remained ignored
by the thermoanalytical community. The objective of this article is to emphasize
the now pressing necessity for an open debate between these unreconciled opinions
of different groups of researchers. The ethos of science is that disagreement
between rival theories can be resolved by experiment and/or discussion, which
may also strengthen the foundations of the subject in the process. As pointed
out below, during recent years there has been no movement towards attempting
to resolve some fundamental differences of opinion in a field that lacks an
adequate theory. This should be unacceptable to all concerned. Here some criticisms
are made of specific features of the alternative reaction models available
with the stated intention of provoking a debate that might lead to identification
of the significant differences between the currently irreconciled views. This
could, of course, attract the displeasure of both sides, who will probably
criticise me severely. Because I intend to retire completely from this field
soon, it does not matter to me if I am considered to be ‘wrong’,
if it contributes to us all eventually agreeing to get the science ‘right’.
Authors:E. H. J. Lugwisha, A. M. Mulokozi, and M. K. J. Masabo
The activation energy of the thermal decomposition of finely ground LaC2O4Br was determined according to the method of Ozawa asEa=203.83 kJ mol−1. As compared to the value for the parent oxalate La2(C2O4)3Ea=130 kJ/mol), this value is higher by about 70 kJ/mol, which is consistent with the increased interaction between the metal and oxalate ions. The substitution of Br by Cl does not affect the decomposition kinetics profoundly.
On the basis of previous modifications of the Zhuravlev and Ginstling-Brounshtein models, a generalization of kinetic diffusional models is proposed. With the assumption that the rate of the activation energy change during the reaction is inversely proportional to the reaction time, it has been shown that all diffusional kinetic equations in heterogeneous systems take the formF(α)=KTn, whereF(α) is a function of the degree of conversionα andK andn are constants related to the rate constant.
Activation energy can be estimated by a new simple method, in which logarithm of maximum rate of conversion observed at different heating rates is plotted against reciprocal absolute temperature, because the conversion at the maximum rate is approximately independent of the heating rate. The method is applied to thermal shrinkage of polycarbonate, and the estimated activation energy is in good agreement with those obtained by conventional methods.
This paper describes the influences of some parameters relevant to biomass pyrolysis on the numerical solutions of the nonisothermal
nth-order distributed activation energy model (DAEM) involved the Weibull distribution. Investigated parameters are the integral
upper limit, the frequency factor, heating rate, the reaction order and the shape, scale and location parameters of the Weibull
distribution. Those influences can be used for the determination of the kinetic parameters of the nonisothermal nth-order Weibull DAEM from thermoanalytical data of biomass pyrolysis.