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The experience of socialism and its legacies in Eastern Europe created a specific context for artists’ engagement with animals and their approach to the natural world. The blueprint for building the socialist utopia had spared little concern for the environmental consequences of breakneck industrialisation, with rivers rerouted, landscapes devastated and nature viewed purely as a material resource. The welfare and interests of animals were far down the list of priorities in a system which valorised the proletariat and demanded sacrifices for the glorification of the socialist state. The cruel fate of the world’s first space traveller, Laika the dog, who was sent on a one-way mission into orbit in 1957, was symbolic of official attitudes towards animals under socialism, as well as providing a focus for feelings of empathy from human subjects that felt equally oppressed.

It was in the 1960s that live animals first entered artistic practice through happenings and performances, which occurred in parallel with the neo-avant-garde exodus from studios and galleries to enter public space and natural environments and was part of the utopian drive to abolish the distinction between art and life. However, it was only after the changes brought by the countercultural orientation of 1968, with the emergence of the women’s liberation movement, a new concern for human rights and the rise of ecological thinking that neo-avant-garde artists began to conceptually address the position of the animal. Birds turned out to be particularly appropriate living metaphors to convey the suppressed desire for freedom, as well as offering a way to explore the ethical and environmental dimensions of relations between the human and the animal.

This paper explores changing attitudes and approaches to animals in East European art of the neo-avant-garde during the Long Sixties through an examination of key works by István Harasztÿ from Hungary, Slovak artist Peter Bartoš and Petr Štembera from the Czech Republic, while considering the impact of new thinking about the natural environment across the porous ideological borders of the Cold War. Engagements with the animal were most frequently conceived in metaphorical terms as a means to talk about the human condition which, due to the specific social, historical and political circumstances of the Eastern Bloc, was particularly true of artists living under socialism.

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The detection of characteristic gamma rays emitted promptly by elements after capture of neutrons is used as a means of radioanalytic analysis. Here it is shown that the method can be used for the measurement of the nitrogen (and therefore protein) content of small animals, those with mass around 3 kg.

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( 1963 ): Germfree life and gnotobiology . Academic Press–New York. pp. 1 – 497 8. Al-Asmakh M , Zadjali F : Use of germ-free animal models in

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Abstract  

A method for the neutron activation analysis of aluminum in animal tissue has been developed which through pre-irradiation chemistry eliminates otherwise interfering nuclear reactions. The procedure gives a precision of ±0.1 ppm in samples of a few hundred milligrams dry tissue containing about 1 ppm Al.Bowen’s standard kale has been analysed instrumentally and a value of 45±4 ppm Al was found. Difficulties specifically related to the aluminum analysis of this material are discussed.

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Introduction Contamination of the urban space with the faeces of dogs and cats may pose a serious risk of contamination with potentially dangerous human and animal pathogens like Staphylococcus spp., which can be aetiological agents of diseases on

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: W. Kwiatek, B. Kubica, R. Gryboś, M. Krośniak, E. Dutkiewicz, and R. Hajduk

Abstract  

Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) were used for vanadium determination in animal tissues. The vanadium concentration levels were determined in blood, kidneys and livers taken from rats. Two groups of the animals were treated with different diets. The diet for the first group was supplemented with vanadium compounds while the diet for the second one was assumed to be a normal diet. The second group was treated as control. In order to achieve the best minimum detectable limit (MDL)1 the samples were subject to a special sample preparation procedure. Blood and kidneys were mineralized with an APDC compound. The mineralization process was performed according to the procedure described previously.2 The application of PIXE3 is very useful for different types of samples. PIXE measurements were performed with a proton beam at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow, Poland while the AAS measurements were done at the Institute of Molecular Biology, Jagiellonian University, Poland. The concentration levels of vanadium in blood and kidneys are compared and discussed. There were no significant statistical differences between results of vanadium concentration levels determined by the abovementioned techniques. The PIXE technique had the advantage over the AAS technique of giving a broad spectrum of trace elements analyzed in a single measurement. Therefore with the help of sample preparation procedure the application of the PIXE method seems to be suitable for such analyzes.

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A simple calorimeter is described which consists of a cooling/warming box as used for picnic equipment. The volume of this calorimeter is 8 dm3, the sensitivity is 19.2 mV/W, and the time constant is 580 s. As such an instrument is designed for animals weighing some 100 g, a signal of 10 to 50 mV can be expected, which can easily be monitored with the usual laboratory recorders. The long-time baseline drift is sufficiently small when the calorimeter is placed in a wooden box with Styropore insulation. Experiments were run for 1 to 15 h with various animals, among them chinese hamsters, hedgehogs, turtles and rats. The price of the box is appr. $ 100.

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A review of the book The Question of Animal Culture edited by Kevin Laland and Bennett Galef References J. T. Bonner

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Németh, Á., Nádasi, E., Gyöngyi, Z., Olasz, L., Nyárádi, Z., Ember, Á., Kvarda, A., Bujdosó, L., Arany, I., Kiss, I. & Ember, I. (2003): Early effects of different cytostatic protocols for head and neck cancer on oncogene activation in animal

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ELISAs to differentiate between Aujeszky's disease-vaccinated and infected animals. J. Virol. Meth. 65, 83--94. Glycoprotein gE blocking ELISAs to differentiate between Aujeszky's disease-vaccinated and infected animals

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