mortality have been linked [ 1 , 2 ]. More attention has been drawn to A. baumannii due to its growing antimicrobialresistance. A. baumannii shows intrinsic resistance to different antibacterial agents such as aminopenicillins, cephalosporins of the
Authors:Saeed Khoshnood, Fatemeh Shahi, Nabi Jomehzadeh, Effat Abbasi Montazeri, Morteza Saki, Seyed Mojtaba Mortazavi, and Leila Maghsoumi-Norouzabad
alterations in antimicrobialresistance pattern has caused renewed interest in the use of antibiotics, such as macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB), for the treatment of these infections [ 6 ].
This group of antibiotics, in spite of their
determine the prevalence, associated factors, antimicrobialresistance profile, and biofilm-forming potency of nasally colonized MRSA among HIV patients attending antiretroviral drug therapy clinic at the Arba Minch General Hospital, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Authors:Josman Dantas Palmeira and Helena Ferreira
Antimicrobial resistance is a relevant “One Health” issue that shows the need of comparison of isolates of different origins. In this way, guidelines for antimicrobial-resistance evaluation in animals are relevant in relation to human sources. This work aims to compare antimicrobial-resistance results of animal isolates considering CLSI and EUCAST guidelines. The comparison shows considerable differences in the results, which include antibiotics used as primary options in hospital infections. EUCAST showed the higher number of samples with resistance profiles than CLSI that indicates a more efficient scenario to the EUCAST to screen antibiotic-resistant bacteria. EUCAST was more consonant to the expected phenotype for ESBL producers, with higher index of resistance to oxyimino-beta-lactam antibiotics. The study shows that there are differences in the interpretative results using different guidelines, where the susceptibility test results concerning Enterobacteriaceae of animal origin are not always coincident in CLSI and EUCAST. EUCAST has proved to be the most reliable alternative for profile screening of antibiotic resistance, when compared to CLSI. We might say the same with respect to the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, in which EUCAST has proved to be more efficient about the demonstration of expected resistance profiles for the ESBL producers. These differences show that guideline selection might influence the therapeutic option.
The recommended use of doxycycline (DC) to broiler chicken is 100 mg/L via the drinking water and a 7-day withdrawal time (WDT). However, study of a higher dosage is desirable because of the possible increase of antimicrobial resistance and disease spectrum. Tissue DC residues exceeding the current maximum residue levels (MRL) was our major concern. Therefore, serum concentration and tissue depletion of DC hyclate after administration of 200 mg/L of DC in the drinking water for five consecutive days were studied. The steady-state DC concentration (8.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL) was reached on the third day of medication. The elimination constant (0.05 ± 0.01 1/h), half-life (14.9 ± 1.4 h), area under concentration versus time curve (81.0 ± 9.9 h·μg/mL) and mean residence time (22.7 ± 2.5 h) were obtained using a non-compartmental pharmacokinetic model. It was determined that the current 7-day WDT regulation was still legitimate for the kidney and liver as well as for the breast and leg muscles, which were estimated by linear regression analysis of the 99% upper distribution limit. The unregulated heart and gizzard were considered safe even when the lowest MRL of muscle (100 ng/g) was applied. While at the present time the extra-label use of drugs is only allowed under specific conditions, in the future it may become necessary to increase the general dosage of DC, and the current results suggest a safe range of DC hyclate in chicken; however, skin/fat tissue residues warrant further studies.
Authors:Leila Ben Said, Raoudha Dziri, Nadia Sassi, Carmen Lozano, Karim Ben Slama, Imen Ouzari, Carmen Torres, and Naouel Klibi
. , Sørensen , A. H. and Guardabassi , L. ( 2008 ): Monitoring of antimicrobialresistance in healthy dogs: first report of canine ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17 . Vet. Microbiol. 132 , 190 – 196