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Abstract  

Iron oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube magnetic composites (denoted as magnetic composites) were synthesized and characterized in detail. The magnetic composites can be separated from aqueous solution easily by using magnetic separation method. The application of magnetic composites in the removal of Eu(III) from large volumes of aqueous solutions was studied. The results indicated that the sorption of Eu(III) on the magnetic composites was strongly dependent on pH values and weakly dependent on ionic strength. The sorption of Eu(III) on the magnetic composites was mainly dominated by inner-sphere surface complexation. The linear sorption isotherms of Eu(III) suggested that Eu(III) sorption on the magnetic composites was far from saturation. The large sorption capacity and the easy magnetic separation method indicate that the magnetic composites may be a promising suitable material in nuclear waste management in future.

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Abstract  

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have attracted multidisciplinary study because of their unique physicochemical properties. Herein, the sorption of U(VI) from aqueous solution to oxidized MWCNTs was investigated as a function of contact time, pH and ionic strength. The results indicate that U(VI) sorption on oxidized MWCNTs is strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. The sorption of U(VI) is mainly dominated by surface complexation and cation exchange. The sorption of U(VI) on oxidized MWCNTs is quickly to achieve the sorption equilibrium. The sorption capacity calculated from sorption isotherms suggests that oxidized MWCNTs are suitable material in the preconcentration and solidification of U(VI) from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

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Abstract  

Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) oxidized by nitric acid solution were used to investigate the adsorption behavior of strontium from aqueous solutions similar to the nuclear waste media. The physical properties of both as produced and oxidized MWCNTs were studied by Boehm’s titration method and nitrogen adsorption/desorption. The results showed that the surface properties of MWCNTs such as specific surface area, functional groups and the total number of acid sites were improved after oxidation. Furthermore, the effect of solution conditions such as initial concentration of strontium(II), pH, ionic strength, MWCNT concentration and contact time were studied at room temperature. The results of this study showed that the adsorption of strontium(II) was significantly influenced by the pH value and the solution ionic strength. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacities of strontium(II) onto the as produced and oxidized MWCNTs were obtained as 1.62 and 6.62 mg g−1, respectively. The contact time to reach equilibrium was 100 min. The good adsorption of strontium(II) on oxidized MWCNTs at the lower ionic strength, the relatively high pH and the short equilibrium time indicate that the oxidized MWCNTs have great potential applications in the field of the environmental protection.

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Abstract  

The flow-induced crystallization behavior of nanocomposites, containing isotactic poly(1-butene) (PB) and functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), was investigated. Three different MWNT concentrations (0.1, 1, 5 wt%) were used to prepare the nanocomposites. Effects of MWNT and shear flow on the crystallization parameters were evaluated separately. Rheological measurements based on oscillatory shear revealed induction time and crystallization half-time at the quiescent state, where both parameters exhibited the nucleating effect of MWNT on PB. Rheological measurements based on steady-state shear flow and short-time shear flow revealed the evolution of molecular orientation, which was studied in both PB and its nanocomposites. A small increase in crystallization kinetic was recorded in PB under shear having moderate values of the Weissenberg (We) number. On the other hand, a dramatic synergistic effect of MWNT and shear was detected under the same shear conditions for nanocomposites. The optical microscopic images exhibited a clear transition from isotropic to row-like morphology in the case of nanocomposites under shear.

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Abstract  

Nanofibrous composite mats were prepared by electrospinning of poly(trimethylene terephthalate), PTT, with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PTT/MWCNT). Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and methylene chloride (MC) with volume ratio of 50/50 is a good solvent for PTT and was used as the electrospining solution. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphology of electrospun (ES) nanofibers with 0, 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0 wt% of MWCNTs. Crystal structure of the ES mats was determined from wide angle X-ray diffraction. Thermal properties were investigated using heat capacity measurements from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using the three-runs method for baseline correction, heat flow amplitude calibration, and sample heat capacity determination. A model comprising three phases, a mobile amorphous fraction (MAF), rigid amorphous fraction (RAF), and crystalline fraction (C), is appropriate for ES PTT/MWCNT fibers. The phase fractions, W i (for i = RAF, MAF or C) were determined by DSC. Crystallinity decreases very slightly with the amount of MWCNT. At the same time, a large increase in RAF was observed: W RAF of PTT fiber with 2% MWCNT is twice that of neat PTT fiber. The addition of MWCNTs enhanced the PTT chain alignment and increased RAF as a result. Changes of vibrational band absorbance at 1358 and 1385 cm−1, corresponding to characteristic groups, were obtained with infrared spectroscopy. The increased absorbance at 1358 cm−1 and decreased absorbance at 1385 cm−1, with the addition of MWCNTs, strongly supports the three-phase model for ES PTT/MWCNT nanocomposites.

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Abstract  

A series of PET/acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposites of varying nanoparticles’ concentration were prepared, using the in situ polymerization technique. TEM micrographs verified that the dispersion of the MWCNTs into the PET matrix was homogeneous, while some relatively small aggregates co-existed at higher filler contents. Intrinsic viscosity of the prepared nanocomposites was increased at low MWCNTs contents (up to 0.25 wt%), while at higher contents a gradual reduction was observed. The surface carboxylic groups of acid-treated MWCNTs probably reacted with the hydroxyl end groups of PET, acting as chain extenders at smaller concentrations, while at higher concentrations, on the other hand, led to the formation of branched and cross-linked macromolecules, with reduced apparent molecular weights. From the thermogravimetric curves, it was concluded that the prepared samples exhibited good thermostability, since no remarkable mass loss occurred up to 320 °C (<0.5%). The activation energy (E) of degradation of the studied materials was estimated using the Ozawa, Flynn, and Wall (OFW), Friedman and Kissinger’s methods. Pure PET had an E = 223.5 kJ/mol, while in the PET/MWCNTs nanocomposites containing up to 1 wt% the E gradually increased, indicating that MWCNTs had a stabilizing effect upon the decomposition of the matrix. Only the sample containing 2 wt% of MWCNTs exhibited a lower E due to the existence of the aforementioned cross-linked macromolecules. The form of the conversion function for all the studied samples obtained by fitting was the mechanism of nth-order auto-catalysis.

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Abstract  

Batch adsorption technique was applied to study the adsorption of radiocobalt on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with deferent sizes. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of contact time, pH, solid content, foreign ions and CNT particle sizes on the removal of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions by CNTs. The results indicated that the adsorption of Co(II) was strongly dependent on pH and the adsorption capacity was in inverse proportion to the particle sizes of CNTs. The adsorption of Co(II) was weakly affected by ionic strength and foreign ions. Ion exchange and surface complexation were the main adsorption mechanisms. The kinetics of Co(II) adsorption on CNTs was described well by pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to interpret the adsorption data. The results are important to understand the physicochemical behavior of Co(II) with CNTs, and for the application of CNTs in the preconcentration of radiocobalt from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

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Abstract  

The adsorption of Eu(III) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a function of pH, ionic strength and solid contents are studied by batch technique. The results indicate that the adsorption of Eu(III) on MWCNTs is strongly dependent on pH values, dependent on ionic strength at low pH values and independent of ionic strength at high pH values. Strong surface complexation and ion exchange contribute to the adsorption of Eu(III) on MWCNTs at low pH values, whereas surface complexation and surface precipitation are the main adsorption mechanism of Eu(III) on MWCNTs. The desorption of adsorbed Eu(III) from MWCNTs by adding HCl is also studied and the recycling use of MWCNTs in the removal of Eu(III) is investigated after the desorption of Eu(III) at low pH values. The results indicate that adsorbed Eu(III) can be easily desorbed from MWCNTs at low pH values, and MWCNTs can be repeatedly used to remove Eu(III) from aqueous solutions. MWCNTs are suitable material in the preconcentration and solidification of radionuclides from large volumes of aqueous solutions in nuclear waste management.

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Abstract  

Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified by nitric acid solution and then used to study the adsorption of cesium from aqueous solution using a batch technique under ambient conditions. As produced and oxidized MWCNTs were characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Boehm’s titration method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The physical properties of MWCNTs such as functional groups, total number of acid sites and specific surface area were greatly improved after oxidation, and these were responsible for more sorption of cesium from aqueous solution and made them more dispersible in water. The adsorption of cesium ions as a function of contact time, initial concentration of cesium, pH, ionic strength and oxidized MWCNT concentrations was also investigated. The results showed that cesium adsorption percentage strongly depended on the pH value, oxidized MWCNT content and on the solution ionic strength. Kinetic data indicated that the adsorption process achieved equilibrium within 80 min. Equilibrium data for as produced and oxidized MWCNTs was well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The dominant mechanism of cesium adsorption on oxidized MWCNTs may be mainly attributed to ion exchange. This study suggests that oxidized MWCNTs can be a promising candidate for the removal of cesium from nuclear waste solution.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
Simona Clichici
,
T. Mocan
,
A. Filip
,
A. Biris
,
S. Simon
,
D. Daicoviciu
,
N. Decea
,
A. Parvu
,
R. Moldovan
, and
A. Muresan

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been proposed for various medical applications. However, their safety for human administration has not been yet fully demonstrated. In vitro studies have pointed oxidative stress as a mechanism involved in their cytotoxic effects. In the present study we have evaluated the capacity of DNA functionalized SWCNTs to induce oxidative stress in blood after intraperitoneal (ip) administration in rats. The presence of SWCNTs in blood was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy 30 minutes after their ip administration. Oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde — MDA, protein carbonyls — PC, antioxidant capacity measured as hydrogen donating capacity — HD, sulfhydryl groups — SH, glutathione — GSH and nitrites — NO) were assessed in blood at 3, 6, 24, respectively, and 48 hours after ip injection. MDA, PC and NO exhibited a significant increase at 3-6 hours interval from exposure, followed by a recovery trend. The levels of HD reached a bottom level at 6 hours after administration, while SH strongly decreased at 3 hours interval and increased slightly up to 48 hours without attending the initial values. GSH level recorded an increasing tendency at the 3rd hour, an incomplete recovery process at 24 hours followed by a secondary significant increase following a 48-hour interval. Significant inverse correlations were obtained between the PC and SH levels and between the NO and HD values. In conclusion, the ip administration of DNA functionalized SWCNT in rats results in oxidative stress generation in plasma, with a transient pattern of evolution.

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