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An investigation on the quality characteristics of wheat bread enriched with seeds of high-oleic sunflower is reported which included important parameters that affect its nutritional quality (chemical composition, fatty acid composition: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, linoleic and linolenic acid, tocopherol content: α-, β-, γ-, δ-content of essential microelement selenium) and its sensory quality. The study also includes the assessment of a persistent pollutant, benzo[a]pyrene. The objective of the study was to determine and compare the concentrations of nutrients and contaminants of the control and enriched wheat bread in order to assess the benefits and potential risks of regular consumption of these products. It was found that bread enriched with seeds of high-oleic sunflower would significantly improve the daily intake of fat, fibre, selenium, α-tocopherol and linolenic acid. Regular consumption of a daily portion of such bread (300 g) would not incur significantly increased health risk from contaminant.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
A. Awudu
,
A. Faanu
,
E. Darko
,
G. Emi-Reynolds
,
O. Adukpo
,
D. Kpeglo
,
F. Otoo
,
H. Lawluvi
,
R. Kpodzro
,
I. Ali
,
M. Obeng
, and
B. Agyeman

Abstract  

Knowledge of radioactivity levels in human diet is of particular concern for the estimation of possible radiological hazards to human health. However, very few surveys of radioactivity in food have been conducted in Ghana. The natural radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K were measured in the foodstuffs using gamma ray spectrometry. All samples were found to contain high 40K content in the range 87.77–368.50 Bq kg−1. The maximum concentration of 228Th and 40K were found in cassava to be 14.93 ± 3.86 and 368.50 ± 19.20 Bq kg−1, respectively. The total annual committed effective dose was estimated to be 4.64 mSv. The daily intake of radionuclides from food consumption reveals that cassava and plantain are the highest contributors, while millet is the lowest. The daily radionuclide intake from the foodstuffs consumed by the general public was 411.32 Bq and the daily internal dose resulting from ingestion of the radionuclides in the foodstuffs was 0.01 mSv. The radionuclide concentrations were comparable with those reported from other countries.

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Abstract  

Mineral contents of strawberry, collected from different farms of Islamabad were analysed by semi-absolute k 0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The samples were irradiated at two research reactors located in Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad. The analytical methodologies were validated by analysing reference materials, IAEA-336 (lichen) and IAEA-V-10 (hay powder). In all the samples, a total of 26 elements were quantified, among them 16 elements (Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Ru, Sc, Sr and Zn) were found in all the samples. The determined elemental concentrations in strawberry were compared with the reported values from other countries. In comparison with the mineral contents of other fruits, strawberry stands best source of Mn and the second most important source of K after banana. Intake of trace metals through this source was calculated and it was found that strawberry provides Mn (1.95–3.68 mg/kg), Cr (19.2–46.3 × 10−3 mg/kg), Fe (3.45–8.72 mg/kg), K (1,520–1,670 mg/kg) and Mg (100–220 mg/kg), which forms 26, 19, 14, 7 and 7% of the recommended dietary allowances for the respective metals. The daily intake of Cd and Pb were compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake defined by FAO/WHO.

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Abstract  

Concentrations of 15 elements were determined simultaneously in duplicateportion diets of two university student groups from So Paulo Universityconsisting of nine women (20–23 years) and ten men (20–24 years).Thediet samples were prepared by either freeze-drying or drying in a ventilatedoven. About 100–200 mg of diets were irradiated for 2 minutes and 8hours in the IEA-R1m research reactor and Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, K, Fe, Mn,Mg, Mo, Na, Rb, Se, and Zn were determined by instrumental neutron activationanalysis (INAA). The average daily intakes found in the women and men groupswere: 2.1 and 4.3 mg of Br, 501 and 707 mg of Ca; 3.1 and 6.0 g of Cl; 12and 25 mg of Co; 15 and 36 µg of Cs; 53 and 63 µg of Cr; 5.1 and10.8 mg of Fe; 1.3 and 2.8 g of K; 134 and 306 mg of Mg; 1.3 and 4.1 mg ofMn; 134 and 302 mg of Mo, 2.0 and 4.1 g of Na; 2.4 and 4.6 mg of Rb; 29 and41 µg of Se; 6.2 and 10.6 mg of Zn, respectively. The daily intakesof Ca, Se and Zn in both groups and Fe in the women groups appeared to bebelow the U.S. RDA recommendations. For the elements Na and Cl the daily intakeswere higher than the recommended values by RDA.

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Abstract  

The soil-to-grass transfer factors and grass-to-milk transfer coefficients were determined for 137Cs and stable Cs in soil, grass and milk samples collected in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. The concentrations of 137Cs in the soil and grass samples collected from 25 sampling sites were 13±12 Bq.kg-1 and 2.0±2.1 Bq.kg-1 dry wt., respectively. The geometric mean of soil-to-grass transfer factor of 137Cs was 0.13 and its 95% confidence interval was 0.017-0.98. The transfer factor of 137Cs was higher than that of stable Cs, and they had a positive correlation. The concentration of K in the soil affected both transfer factors. The concentration of 137Cs in milk samples collected from 16 sites was 76±43 mBq.kg-1 fresh wt. and had a good correlation with that of stable Cs. The geometric mean of grass-to-milk transfer coefficient of 137Cs was 0.0027, assuming that a cow's total daily intake was 20 kg of dry grass. The transfer coefficient of 137Cs was positively correlated with that of stable Cs.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
V. Vucic
,
J. Tepsic
,
A. Arsic
,
T. Popovic
,
J. Debeljak-Martacic
, and
M. Glibetic

Although fatty acid (FA) composition of vegetable oils used daily markedly influences human health, there are no detailed data on their composition in available on-line food composition data bases, particularly from Central and Eastern Europe. This study focused on determination of the FA composition of eight different vegetable oils, which are commonly used in nutrition, as well as the dietary habits in oil consumption in Serbia. The results showed high contents of n-6 linoleic acid (LA) and total polyunsaturated FA in sunflower and grapeseed oil (62.5 and 70.0%, respectively), while the highest content of oleic acid and total monounsaturated FA was found in canola oil (64.4%) and olive oil (67.0%). Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3) was found in linseed oil (53.6%) and to a lesser extent in canola oil (7%). The results of the survey showed that processed sunflower oil is the most often consumed oil in Serbia. Therefore there is a high daily intake of LA, which may have unfavourable impact on human health. Considering our similar dietary habits, it could be proposed that the same situation applies to the whole region. However, changes in dietary habits and proper choice of oils could improve overall health in our region.

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Abstract  

In the under developed countries, the people of far-flung rural areas still depend to a large extent upon herbal medicines. At the foundation of usage of herbal medicine is the experience of thousands of years. The present paper deals with the characterisation of exotic fruits for essential and toxic elements. The samples include Morus nigra, Morus alba, Salvadora persica and Carissa opaca (from low and high altitude). Two standardizations of neutron activation analysis, that is, semi-absolute k 0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0-INAA) and epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) were employed for the quantification of elements. The analysis methodologies were validated by analyzing the IAEA-336 (lichen) and NIST-SRM-1572 (citrus leaves). Sixteen elements including Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc Sr, and Zn were determined in all samples. Daily intakes of various elements from the samples were measured and compared with the dietary reference intakes. Additionally, principal component analysis was performed to extract information regarding samples and elements.

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Abstract  

Tea has been one of the most popular simulating beverages which is both heavily produced and consumed in Taiwan. The determination of minor or trace elements in drinking tea and tea leaves is therefore important for estimating the daily intake of Taiwanese considered as a safety indicator. In order to accurately and precisely determine the concentrations of trace elements in samples, several analytical methods such as AAS, NAA and ICP-AES are suggested. This paper attempts to utilize all three methods to determine the concentrations of minor or trace elements in different types of tea leaves and the extracts percolated from them. The influence of fermentation processes on the concentration levels of minor or trace elements in tea samples is investigated. Because only free metal ions are bioavailable for the human body, it is necessary to determine their concentrations in drinking tea. The dissolution of trace elements in drinking tea is therefore studied by simulating the common Chinese style of tea percolation. Concentrations of thirteen elements including Zn, Mn, Ca, Cu, Ni, Al, K, Mg, Cd, Pb, Na, Co and Sc are determined.

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Abstract  

The concentration of certain toxic and essential elements in various raw materials of Chinese herbs and scientific Chinese medicine were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Correlation of these elements as they exist in the raw materials and in the prescription of medicine were investigated and the approximate intake of elements by patients were estimated. Values of elements determined both by ASS and INAA presented excellent agreement. The ranges of elemental concentrations were found to vary from 104 to 10–1 mg/kg in different kinds of herbs. All herbs exhibit extraordinary enrichment capabilities from the environment for elements such as Mn, Zn, Ca, K, Mg, Cd, Cu, Pb and As. Higher contents of Cd, Pb and As in herbs may be attributed to the uptake of these elements from polluted soil due to industrial and antropogenic activities. It was found that commercial scientific Chinese medicine, SCDBT, contains more elemental concentrations than that of herbs used in the prescription, which may indicate that possible contamination could be caused by unknown ingredients added in the process. A much higher toxic elemental content, such as Pb, Cd and As, has been found in CFH and the daily intake of these elements by the patient will exceed the PTDI values.

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Wheat is the major staple food in most temperate countries, including Europe and North America. In addition to providing energy and protein it is a significant source of a number of essential or beneficial components, including B vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibre. Cereal fibre has established benefits in reducing the risk of several chronic diseases but the consumption of fibre is below the recommended daily intake in the typical “Western diet”. Improving the content and composition of wheat fibre is therefore an attractive strategy to improve the health of large populations at low cost. The major dietary fibre components of wheat grain are arabinoxylan and β-glucan. Both vary in their amount, composition, and properties in different grain fractions, with white flour being lower in total fibre than bran but having a higher proportion of soluble fibre. There is significant variation in the amounts and structures of arabinoxylan and β-glucan in bread wheat genotypes, including commercial cultivars from different regions of the world, old landraces and exotic lines. This variation is also highly heritable, which should allow plant breeders to develop improved cultivars. Gradients in fibre composition and content within the grain may also allow millers to produce specialist high fibre flours.

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