The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of progressive selection generations in order to define the maximum efficiency of increasing yield in relation to the stage of selection procedure. Experimental procedure lasted five years on open-pollinated lines selected in two contrasting environments under low plant population. Mean grain yield of individual maize plants increased by 79% from C0 to C4 generation in environment A and 32% in environment B. Yield of individual plants was increased by 58% from C0 to C2 when selection was fully practiced in environment B. The progressive reduction of CV values through the selection generations revealed gene fixation and lack of segregation in selected lines which tended to be more uniform and homozygous. Low to medium negative kurtosis and low to medium positive skewness, accompanied by a more “squared” shape of distribution curve may indicate more homozygous genetic material that was categorized in clusters of similar C4 lines as was observed in environment A, depicting the end of selection procedure. In C4, a breeder may choose from the upper part of distribution curve (higher yielding plants) in order to avoid possible selection of deleterious genes at the kurtosis-biased lower part of the distribution curve. Our findings suggested the selection of cultivars of narrow adaptation, because at the initial stages of the selection program the effect of environment lead to different genetic materials, favouring certain genotypes. In our study environment B favoured selection procedure for developing high yielding open-pollinated lines for breeding and farming purposes.
Because of questions concerning the suitability of potassium nitrate as a dynamic temperature standard for DTA, the relation between the experimental procedure and the resulting curves was ascertained for the Standard Reference Material KNO3. The material behaves differentlyon cooling in open pans than in cylindrical holders because confinement in the latter case initiates reversion to the room temperature form. Under the conditions of use as a dynamic temperature reference material, the curves are accurately reproducible.
Introduction:The Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is an abdominal operation carried out with flexible endoscopic instruments and their advanced versions via natural orifices. The NOTES causes theoretically less pain, operative stress, shorter hospitalization, quicker recovery and it is scarless. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of transgastric small bowel resection. Materials and methods: Seven domestic pigs were investigated and entered the study; body weight 25 kg in average. General anesthesia was performed. One trocar was used for laparoscopic observations during gastrotomy and transgastric penetration with the gastroscope, later for assistance with a grasper for manipulation of the bowel loops and for the application of the linear stapling device. Then the needle knife was used to complete a 1.5 cm long incision in the gastric wall. The gastroscope was advanced into the peritoneal cavity and a small bowel loop was identified and elevated with a flexible grasper. Through the second channel of the scope a coag grasper was used to dissect the mesentery. Then a linear stapler was inserted through the assisting trocar and the resection was performed. Afterwards the bowel ends were opened with the needle knife and the stapler was reinserted for a side-to-side anastomosis. The specimen was removed via the stomach. Gastric closure was completed by laparoscopic mini-instruments through the stapler-port. All special events and all problems were prospectively documented. Follow-up was performed over 2 weeks and body weight was recorded. Then a laparoscopy was performed to document adhesions or abscess formation. Finally the animals were sacrificed to evaluate further evidence of infection or adhesions. Results: The operations were carried without complications, there was no case of letal outcome. On the 12th day the abdominal laparoscopic revision was carried out, after the revision in one case adhesion could be detected, no other kinds of complications were noticed. Conclusion: According to our results, the transgastric small bowel resection is a safe procedure, but further special instruments are needed. These experimental procedures should be evaluated carefully and critically in clinical practice.
) Enantioselective Organocatalysis. Reactions and Experimentalprocedures ; Dalko, P. I. Ed.; Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, 2007; (b) Asymmetric Organocatalysis, in Topics in Current Chemistry , List, B. Ed., Springer, 2009, vol. 291; (c) Puglisi, A.; Benaglia, M.; Chiroli
metallic ions (Mn, Co, and Cr) were chosen in order to verify the efficiency of the synthesis method. Thermal analysis, structural, and colorimetric characterizations were also done.
The pigments were
used for education. Some possibilities include the following: The general availability of detailed experimentalprocedures that are optimized for application in educational modules. An early example by Wirth et al. [ 4a ] provides general background
organic fillers) and the products. In archeology, thermal analysis is widely used for the investigation of ancient ceramics. From the very start, it seemed reasonable to apply the experience of the ceramic industry, with its experimentalprocedures and
grade, were all purchased from SIGMA-ALDRICH.
Reaction 1 goes with very high rate, so our investigations concerned reaction 2 .
The experimental set and the experimentalprocedure have been described earlier [ 3 ]. The main component
Animals and laboratory
The experimentalprocedures employed in this study were approved by the local animal ethics committee. All experiments were carried out in line with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory
method given by Davis (1947) and Mishra and co-workers (2014) , respectively. 1.3 Overview of experimental method Figure 1 illustrates an overall experimentalprocedure, where pomelo juice was frozen in a deep freezer (Lyolab_3S, Lyophilisation Sytems