Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for the determination of 23 elements and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) was used for the determination of 10 elements in U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) 1633A Fly Ash Standard Reference Material (SRM). The results are in excellent agreement with the limited number of NBS certified values available.
Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique was used for the determination of As, Sr, Mo, Ba, In and Ce in fly ash Afsin-Elbistan power plants using the standard addition method. An annular241Am source was employed for excitation of the K shell of the elements.
Differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry were used to evaluate the effect of some additives, such as CaSO4, CaCl2 and silica fume amorphous silica from ferrosilicon synthesis on the mechanism and kinetics of reactions occurring in fly
ash-Ca(OH)2 system. The accelerating role of these additives was demonstrated from the data relating to Ca(OH)2 consumption in hydrated pastes, determined by TG measurements.
The effect of calcium hydroxide (CH) on the properties of Portland–fly ash cement pastes, at up to high-volume fly ash mixes
has been investigated using normal consistency, setting time, compressive strength, thermal analysis and scanning electron
microscope. CH as an additive material (5 and 10 wt%), lignite fly ash (FA) up to 50 wt% was used to produce Portland cement
(PC)–FA–CH pastes at w/PC + FA ratio of 0.5. Water requirement for normal consistency was found to increase with increasing
CH content while a decrease in initial setting time was found. Furthermore, the compressive strengths of all FA mixes with
CH were found to be higher than the mixes without CH. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscope were used to study
the hydration of PC–FA–CH system. The results showed that the first phase transition detected by thermal analyses was attributed
to ettringite, calcium silicate hydrate, gehlenite hydrate and was found to be higher in PC–FA–CH mixes than in pure Portland–FA
cement paste resulting in an increase in compressive strength. Moreover, the hydration phases were also found to increase
with increasing curing time. Overall, the results show that the additional of 5 wt% CH in Portland–FA mixes especially at
high-volume FA mixes was found to accelerate FA pozzolanic reaction at early ages (7 and 28 days), resulting to an increase
in compressive strength.
A method for the determination of sulphur in fly ash by instrumental proton activation analysis using the34S/p,n/34mCl reaction was developed. The 2128.5 keV and 3305.0 keV -rays of34mCl /t=32.0 min/ were measured on a Ge/Li/ -spectrometer, shielded with a lead absorber to attenuate low energy -rays. Irradiation and measuring conditions were optimized. The detection limit for instrumental analysis is 0.3 to 1 mg g–1 and the standard deviation is cca. 4% for a typical sample.
The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for homogeneity tests and certification analyses of coal fly ash reference materials ENO, ECH, and EOP prepared at the Institute of Radioecology and Nuclear Techniques (IRANT), Koice, Czechoslovakia. Quantitative estimation of a degree of inhomogeneity was suggested. The relative standard deviations due to inhomogeneity were found to be <1% for macroconstituents and <3% for minor and trace elements for sample weights about 25 mg. The results of determination of the elements Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, In, K, La, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W, and Zn were compared with the IRANT certified or information values. NBS SRM 1633a Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash was also analyzed as a control sample and the results for the above elements were compared with the NBS certified, information or literature available values. From these comparisons, inference was made on the quality of the IRANT specified values for the element contents.
The leaching and scavenging properties of fly-ash aliquots with respect to water may be studied with a spiked eluent by measuring
the specific count rate of the liquid phase as a function of time. The values of the relevant parameters may be obtained by
going through a sequence of experiments.
Adsorption of uranium, as UO22+, and thorium, as Th4+, has been studied using a modified fly ash bed. Effects of pH and various ions like La3+, Fe3+, Ce4+, SiO32- etc., have been examined. Synthetic mixtures of UO22+ and Th4+ in different concentrations were passed through the bed and eluted separately with various selective reagents viz. ammonium carbonate, sodium carbonate and acetic acid-sodium hydroxide buffer. Separations of these elements at ppm level are shown to be very effective. The separation of uranium and thorium in the presence of lanthanides in monazite sand has been studied successfully. In the analysis of monazite sand, the oxalate precipitation has been avoided. The method is simple and of very low cost. The modified fly ash bed can also be used to remove uranium from contaminated water.
Differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry were used to monitor the course of hydration in the system fly ash - Ca(OH)2 - CaCl2. It was shown that the CaCl2 admixture is an activating agent in this system. The results should be used for the correction of the mixture ratio of binders and builiding materials based on fly ash.
The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for homogeneity tests and certification analyses of the coal fly ash reference material ECO prepared at the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques (IRANT), Koice, Czechoslovakia. The relative standard deviations due to inhomogeneity were found to be <3% for 19 elements including for sample weights about 50 mg. The results of determination of the elements Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, In, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W, and Zn, were compared with the IRANT certified or information values. Inference was made on the reliability of the IRANT specified values for the element contents.