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Claudins are integral membrane proteins of the tight junction structures expressed by epithelial and endothelial cells. The present study has evaluated the expression of claudin-4 in 10 normal canine hepatoid glands and in 67 hepatoid glands with hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions. The lesions studied included normal hepatoid glands (n = 10), nodular hyperplasias (n = 10), adenomas (n = 12), epitheliomas (n = 15), differentiated carcinomas (n = 15) and anaplastic carcinomas (n = 15). There was an intensive expression of claudin-4 in normal canine hepatoid glands as well as in hyperplasias and adenomas. Claudin-4 was detected as a well-localised linear circumferential membranous staining pattern of epithelial cells (mature hepatoid cells) in normal hepatoid glands, perianal gland hyperplasias and adenomas. In nodular hyperplasia and adenoma, the reserve cells showed membrane positivity for the claudin-4 molecule. There was a weaker expression in hepatoid gland epitheliomas. In the epitheliomas, the basaloid reserve cells never expressed the claudin-4 molecule. The multiple small parts of epitheliomas in which the cells exhibited typical hepatoid features showed a well-localised linear circumferential membranous staining pattern for claudin-4. The numerical score for cellular expression of claudin-4 was higher in differentiated carcinomas than in epitheliomas, but moderately lower than in adenomas. The anaplastic, poorly differentiated hepatoid gland carcinomas showed an overexpression of claudin-4. These results suggest that low claudin-4 expression in epitheliomas is a molecular characteristic indicative of increasing cellular disorientation, detachment motility and invasion by tumour cells, and claudin-4 seems to be helpful in distinguishing undifferentiated carcinomas from differentiated carcinomas and epitheliomas of the hepatoid gland. In addition, claudin-4 can help distinguish epithelioma from differentiated carcinoma of the canine hepatoid gland.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
János Gál
,
Csaba Jakab
,
Zoltán Szabó
,
Péter Pazár
,
Roland Psáder
,
Florian Roeber
,
Árpád Hegyi
,
Kinga Lefler
,
Balázs Farkas
, and
Míra Mándoki

A haemangioma developing in the wall of the oesophagus and protruding into its cavity is reported for the first time from a Red-eared Slider ( Trachemys scripta elegans ). As the tumour mechanically hampered swallowing, the animal was unable to eat and consequently developed a poor condition. Histopathology of the tumour revealed all characteristics of a haemangioma: the blood-filled blood-vessels having an irregular cross-section were lined with endothelial cells. Claudin-5 immunohistochemical antibodies were employed for characterising the tumour, and this examination confirmed our initial diagnosis of a haemangioma.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Roland Psáder
,
Csaba Jakab
,
Ákos Máthé
,
Gyula Balka
,
Kinga Pápa
, and
Ágnes Sterczer

The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8, -10 and -18 in the intact fundic and pyloric gastric mucosa of dogs. Intense, linear, membranous claudin-18 positivity was detected in the surface gastric cells and in the epithelial cells of the gastric glands both in the fundic and pyloric stomach regions. The mucous neck cells in the apical part of the glands, furthermore the parietal cells and chief cells of the basal part of the gland were all positive for claudin-18, in the same way as the enteroendocrine cells. Cells of the basal part of the pyloric glands showed intense, linear, membranous claudin-2 positivity, but cells of the superficial portion of these glands and the surface gastric cells in this region were claudin-2 negative. Fibroblasts, endothelial cells, lymphocytes of the propria layer, smooth muscle cells and vegetative neurons were all negative for claudin-2. All gastric epithelial cells were negative for claudin-1, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8 and -10. The endothelial cells of the propria layer had intense claudin-5 positivity. We assume that claudin-18 forms a paracellular barrier against gastric acid in the healthy canine stomach, in the same way as in mice.

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The distribution of EGF receptors (EGF-R) was examined in normal, hyaline membrane diseased and pneumonic newborn lung tissues by immunohistochemical methods under the light microscope. The PAP technique with polyclonal antibodies was performed to demonstrate the EGF receptor localisation in these tissues. Strong EGF-R reactivity was observed on bronchiolar epithelium and type I and type II alveolar cells in normal newborn loung tissues; whereas, poor reactivity was observed in alveolar macrophages. On the other hand, strong immunoreactivity was detected in type I alveolar cells and alveolar macrophages in hyaline membrane disease, but no reactivity was present in type II alveolar cells. The strongest immunoreactivity was observed in alveolar macrophages of newborn pneumonic lung tissues. In conclusion, the most meaningful form of reactivity was observed in normal newborn lung tissues of airway track and respiration area. This result is related with the maturation of the lungs after birth.

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Lingual components of the autonomic nervous system are considered to be the most rostral portion of the enteric nervous system. Therefore our aim was to study the intrinsic nerve cell bodies and synapses using immunohisto-, immunocytochemical methods. Several small groups of ganglia with cell bodies immunoreactive (IR) for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and substance P (SP) were observed just below the gustatory epithelium. A few somatostatin and galanin IR nerve cell bodies were also found. Many IR cell bodies were also demonstrated in the glands and next to blood vessels. Some of these cell bodies were multipolar and some of them were small neurons with an ovoid shape having only one process. Cell bodies positive for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were detected neither in the superficial nor in the deep portion. Electronmicroscopical analysis demonstrated different IR nerve fibres having axo-somatic and axo-dendritic synapses with other immunonegative cells. In a few cases VIP IR nerve processes were found to synaptize with other VIP positive nerve cell bodies. These results support the existance of intralingual reflex in the tongue, where the ganglia might have an integrative role of the different neuropeptide containing nerve fibres.

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The objective of the investigations was to study the causes of abortion in sheep and goats in Hungary during a 7.5-year period. The authors investigated 246 cases of ovine and 75 cases of caprine abortions by different diagnostic methods. An infectious origin was found in 126 cases (51.2%) of ovine and 19 cases (25%) of caprine abortions. The most important cause of ovine and caprine abortions was Chlamydophila abortus infection with a prevalence of 46% and 17%, respectively. Other infections causing sheep and goat abortions were present only in 5.2% and 8% of the cases, respectively. The results obtained by different diagnostic methods are discussed.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and the number of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript-like immunoreactive (CART-LI) neurons and the co-localisation of CART with substance P (SP), somatostatin (SOM), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) within the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the porcine small intestine. Accordingly, the myenteric plexus (MP), outer submucous plexus (OSP) and inner submucous plexus (ISP) of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) were studied by double-labelling immunofluorescence technique. CART-LI neurons were observed in all gut fragments and all types of intramural plexuses studied and amounted from 0.2 ± 0.1% in the ISP of ileum to 22.4 ± 2.4% in the MP of this segment. The co-localisation of CART and NOS or/and VIP was observed depending on the segment of the gut and the complexity of the intramural plexus. On the other hand, during this study the co-localisation of CART and SOM or/and SP was not observed. The present study, for the first time, presents a detailed description of the CART distribution pattern and co-localisation with other neuromodulators within the ENS of the porcine small intestine.

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A multiple simple adenoma causing severe distortion of the tail base was identified in the cloacal scent gland of a female California Kingsnake (Lampropeltis getulus californiae). In addition to the normal epithelial layer of the gland and the skin, the tumour cells in the glandular epithelium also showed cross immunereactivity with humanised anti-cytokeratin antibody. This is the first description of an adenoma in the scent gland of a reptile species. Neither epithelial nor mesenchymal tumours arising from the scent gland of reptiles have been reported previously. This report also highlights the possible use of humanised antibodies on reptile species for the fast, reliable and specific differential diagnosis of tumours.

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A heterotopic in situ complex adenocarcinoma developing on the hindlimb is reported for the first time from an Asian Leaf Turtle (Cyclemys dentata). The tumour mechanically hampered the movement of the animal. The turtle refused to eat and consequently developed a poor condition. Histopathology of the tumour revealed all characteristics of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma originating from apocrine gland-like tissue: the irregular, tubular structures varying in size were generally lined by two to four layers of cuboidal to columnar neoplastic epithelial cells. Claudin-5, pancytokeratin, cytokeratin, vimentin, α-SMA and Ki-67 immunohistochemical antibodies were employed for characterising the tumour. The diagnosis was a complex adenocarcinoma originating from apocrine gland-like tissue in a turtle.

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The authors describe a case of synchronously occurring (double) tumours, i.e. primary hepatocellular carcinoma and aortic body chemodectoma in a 14-year-old mixed-breed male dog. The tumours were identified during necropsy, following euthanasia. In the last months of its life, the dog showed signs of weakness, anorexia, apathy, inactivity, and abdominal palpation elicited a painful reaction. The primary liver cancer emerged in the left lateral lobe without evidence of any distant metastases. Histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations revealed a well-differentiated, trabecular, claudin-7-, claudin-5- and pancytokeratin-negative hepatocellular carcinoma. The Ki-67 proliferation index was 33%. During necropsy, a synchronously occurring benign, grade I type aortic body chemodectoma was also detected in the dog. This neuroendocrine tumour showed chromogranin-, synaptophysin-, neuron-specific enolase- and S100 protein-positivity, and the Ki-67 proliferation index was 2%. The authors believe that this is the first description of synchronously occurring hepatocellular carcinoma and aortic body chemodectoma in a dog.

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