Sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) are incessant non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to trade in both intra and extra-African trade. New SPS measures are now set up in the African Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA) that amalgamate three existing regional economic communities (RECs): The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the South African Development Community (SADC), and the East African Community (EAC).
This article compares and contrasts the SPS measures obligations as set out in Annex 15 of the TFTA to the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement). Additionally, the application of ‘abusive SPS measures based on minority science’ as non-tariff trade barriers to both internal and external African trade especially on agricultural products is analysed. An increase in transparency and accountability in the formulation of NTBs monitoring mechanisms in the COMESA, SADC, and EAC would address this ever present problem. The TFTA in Annex 15 is a case of SPS-Minus as it has a number of serious shortcomings including the lack of important obligations of sufficient risk assessment, non-discrimination, equivalence, the precautionary principle, and specific reference to consultations and dispute settlement. Notwithstanding these omissions, the TFTA has the potential for great achievement in the curbing of NTBs generally and unjustified SPS measures specifically because of the monitoring, transparency, and harmonisation obligations. If the Tripartite mandate, however, turns out to be like most other ‘loose’ integration efforts in Africa, then there is reason to believe that the NTB monitoring and reporting mechanism is not going to bear much fruit.
life of minorities and disabled children through seeing those issues from their angle and tackling their viewpoints.
In this precious book, the author tried to see through the eyes of the disabled, minority, and marginalized children, who are
Authors:Palmira Juceviciene and Jurgita Vizgirdaite
of all depends on the different contexts of the countries ( Seale, 2013 ). It is especially visible when analyzing the accessibility of the disadvantaged groups (people with disabilities, women, and ethnic minorities).
Thus far, the
suffer improper conduct by the authorities or, worse, discrimination. Occasionally, part of the law enforcement authority's work is affected by prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviors towards minority groups. 18 , 19 Research also suggests
instigated the civil population against the minority ethnic group. This ethnic cleansing also received some attention from the scientific community. 6 The cause and effect relationship was the central focus of the procedure at the International Tribunal for
határon túli magyarok számának alakulása az 1990-es években’ (Hungarian Minorities in Researches: Hungarians in the Neighbouring Countries and Their Numbers in the 1990s) ( 2005 ) 2 Magyar Tudomány 132 – 44
the Roma and Gypsy women the minority of the minorities because the Roma and Gypsy women are disadvantaged in relation to the other members of society from multiple perspectives. (a) Roma and Gypsy women play an important role in the family, especially
Authors:Csaba Horvath, Eszter Ida Kincso Ilyes, Klaudia Rebeka Nagy, Mate Ozse, Csaba Sebok, Eszter Somogy, and Denisz Vaskeba
, Mihaly Robert Drabancz invites us to Hungary between the two World Wars. His study is about the nation-creating ideas and Hungarian minorities in Czechoslovakia. The subject of nation was a delicate matter during this time period to Hungarians, both this