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The young Gogol published a study on the teaching of geography for children in 1831. At the same time, he was writing the collection of short stories, Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka (1831–1832). We can observe interesting connections between his texts – prose fictions and pedagogical writing – of this period: motives belonging to geography, history and folklore make a specifically large context. The author’s interest in geology, as he writes, in the „underground geography” (“подземная география”) – the earth’s crust, rocks, strata – corresponds with the “underground mythology and folklore” in the Dikanka stories, with the demonic figures ( колдун, ведьма, черт ), places ( abyss, ravine, depths of the earth, swamp, churchyard ) and time ( night ). In this study, on the basis of the Gogol’s long-time unedited manuscripts ( Неизданный Гоголь , ed. by I. A. Vinogradov, Moscow, 2001) we investigate the common roots of the seemingly heterogeneous motives to discover the hidden strata and meanings of his early works.

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To the autobiographical character of Remizov's prose several works were consacred in the literary history. However, they do not specify the "subjectivism" of the text exactly. In the article, we attempted to reveal it introducing the term "autobiographic hero". Objectification of the character of the autobiographic hero takes place in the short story of Remizov as a spirit in pagan's sense connected to the low culture, or as an internal voice of the text which is shaped in quasi-personal narration. In Remizov's meta-narration, the presence of the author practically is not perceptible. Due to it, some principles of Remizov's poetics could be approached to the principles set forth in R. Barthes work "La mort l'auteur".

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The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy’s military missions on the Balkans can provide the only experience in Hungarian history that can be connected with a notion of colonization. The paper scrutinises some Hungarian writers’ responses to that experience. Kálmán Mikszáth as a journalist shows a shift in attitude; he strongly criticized the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but eventually he proudly advertised a colonizing discourse. The most important monument of the 40-year connection with Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Hungarian culture was János Asbóth’s monography in two volumes entitled Bosnia and Herzegovina . In that work the celebration of modernisation, westernisation, the development of economy and infrastructure does not imply racism and religious intolerance. The short stories by István Tömörkény that describe the military life in the sanjak Novi Bazar offer a careful analysis of the cultural and linguistic aspects of the experience of otherness in the multicultural Balkan environment.

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The folk-utopian legends of Kitež and Belovodie developed in different his-torical times. The verbal version of legend of Kitež arose in the 13th century, the written version was formed in the second half of the 18th century, but the legend of Belovodie roots back to the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Both legends, however, have common cul-tural genesis as they came into existence among the so-called wanderers or runners sect of Russian Old Believers. These utopian legends are indissolubly linked with national reli-giousness, which had a second period of blossom in different transformations in Russian culture at the end of 19th-beginning of 20th century. The author attempted to show how motifs and elements of these legends, and realia from the wanderers' life interlace in the thematical structure of the historical short story of Ivan Žox that has never been studied before from this aspect.

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In the works of Nabokov there is a combination of scryptography of symbols that the writer uses in an ambivalent way-playing with them (in the high, psychologic sense of the play also as ritual) and exploiting them as polygenetic symbols with different referent sources (Jewish Bible, Egypt, New Testament, antiquity, Dante, Cabala, alchemy, freemasonry). The article shows in a parallel investigation of the Russian and the English texts of the short story how the fantastique way from a museum in France to the native town of the hero, to Russia, due to the broad variety of intertextual allusions, motives and invariants of Nabokov's oeuvre can be understood as a ritual transition through the “underworld” to an “other world”.

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tell of their Slovakian Hungarian origin. This group includes the following works: short stories by József Gazdag Kilátás az ezüstfenyőkre [ View of the Silver Pines ] (2004), volumes of poetry by Zoltán Csehy Hecatelegium (2006), Zoltán Hizsnyai

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) in Róbert Csaba Szabó’s collection of short stories entitled Temetés este tízkor (Funeral at 10:00 p.m.) , an excellent portrait of the transition period following the change of regime. The people of an unnamed village are terrified by the ‘bodywork

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Hungarian literature of the second half of the 20th century, in this context analysing Krasznahorkai's short story collection Relations of Grace ( Kegyelmi viszonyok , 1986). Mizser employs a broad understanding of apocalypse: as he conceives it

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Red Indian, Translated by Willa and Edwin Muir, https://www.yeyebook.com/en/franz-kafka-short-story-the-wish-to-be-a-red-indian-text-eng/ .

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the situation of contemporary playwrights if we read it as it was expressed in the everyday wording of a journalist of the age: “If a starving man stole a bun, he was locked up, but if a man put a short story or a play [written by another] – the most

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