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The paper responds to the question: How should one go about designing the statistical analysis of biodiversity if it had to be done across scales in time and space? The conceptual basis of the design is the definition of biodiversity as a convolution of two community components. One of the components is richness, the product of species evolution, and the other structure, the consequence of environmental sorting (biotic, physical). The method of choice takes information in the manner of frequency distributions, and decomposes the associated total diversity into additive components specific to the deemed sorting factors. Diversity quantities are supplied by the analysis by which the relative importance of sorting factors can be measured and the dynamic oscillations which they generate in diversity can be traced. Examples support the a priori idea that the velocity of compositional change in the community during the late quaternary period has co-varied closely with the specific components of Kolmogorov-type complexity, Anand's structural complexity and Rényi's entropy of order one. The paper explains what is involved and why is it important.

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The essay reflects upon the debate over intentionalism about statutory interpretation, and argues for a moderate version of intentionalism. It argues that the debate over intentionalism cannot be sorted out without establishing a viable conception of legislative authority. The outlines of such a conception are put forward by throwing some light on the concept of “representational authority”. The essay also argues that the problem of legal interpretation touches upon issues of sovereignty. It implies that some important issues of the normative theory of legal interpretation are linked to substantive political philosophical problems.

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Abstract  

Thermal investigation has allowed us to show the changes undergone by a sort of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) as a consequence ofγ-radiation-induced ageing. The parameters of the processes, which occur at progressive heating of the investigated samples, were determined. It was shown that for γ-irradiated samples the activation parameters corresponding to the thermo-oxidative process leading to solid products are correlated through the relation of compensation effect. Also, it was shown that, by γ-irradiation, NBR undergoes a relatively rapid change of its thermal behaviour which can be due to structural changes.

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The elaboration of Na+ super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) ceramics is studied in this work. These solid electrolytes can be used as sensor for detection of polluted gases in air. Two sorts of ceramics with different chemical compositions are synthesised by soft chemistry route: a zirconium-based NaSICON and a hafnium-based NaSICON. DTA-TG and temperature depending X-ray diffractometry were used to follow the thermal decomposition of the precursor phases. The electrical properties of these ceramic sodium ionic conductors are investigated by complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS). The substitution of the zirconium by the hafnium increases the ceramic conductivity and decreases the activation energy E a (from 0.29 to 0.12 eV).

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Abstract

A quantitative method including peak-fitting for determination of the content of short chain branching (SCB) in ethylene/α-olefin copolymers based on differential scanning calorimetry is described. After stepwise isothermal crystallization, the fractions with similar SCB and lamellar thickness are sorted into groups. The content of each group is determined using the peak-fitting area. The statistical terms, the arithmetic mean SCB content , the weighted mean SCB content and the branching broadness index are calculated. Through comparing with the SCB contents measured by 13CNMR analysis, the results show that this method can quantitatively characterize the content of SCB in ethylene/α-olefin copolymers with a high degree of accuracy.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
K. Takamiya
,
T. Inoue
,
K. Nakanishi
,
A. Yokoyama
,
N. Takahashi
,
T. Saito
,
H. Baba
, and
Y. Nakagome

Abstract  

In order to estimate the deformation rate of fission fragment at the scission point for thermal neutron-induced fission of233,235U and239Pu, double-velocity and double-energy measurements were carried out. As the result of the estimation of the deformation rate, two types of scission point configurations were found. One type is composed of deformed light and heavy fragments, and the other type is a combination of deformed light and spherical heavy fragments. Mass and total kinetic energy distributions were sorted in two distributions by means of the type of configuration.

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In 1999 investigation, the needles of Sabina chinesis L. from 11 hot spot tourist cities extending over China were collected as biomonitors for evaluation of atmospheric elemental differences in those cities. Thirty five elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The experimental data reflected the environmental alteration in the cities that have different geographical position, population burden and industrialized level. Eventually by using the data processed by factor analysis (FA) and subsequent cluster analysis (CA), the cities were grouped into six sorts of the urban atmospheric deposition with corresponding elements.

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Science indicators derived from databases

The case of the social sciences

Scientometrics
Author:
H. Artus

Abstract  

Quantitative data or indicators derived from databases are usually treated like any other empirical data. In this article, the social character of the different processes leading to them is outlined. As a social process taking place in systemic organizational structures the genesis of such data cannot be reconstructed as sort of mechanical application of formal rules but only as human (and as such: arbitrary) action. As a consequence the discussion of such data or indicators can no longer be subject to methodology alone but requires support by sociology.

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A Pauline monk Ladislaus Simandi (Simándy) (1655-1715), who was Croat by origin, wrote the first significant piece of art of Croatian visual poetry “Corvi albi eremitici nova musa inconcinna”, devoted to the life of Thebaic Saint Paul. The book is a sort of school textbook, where we can find the simplest anagramma and acrostic, a bit more complicated cubus, hologramma and mezostic, as well as the most complicated circle, wheel, clock, star, wreath and rebus. Two visual pieces of art of Simandi (a Latin-Croatian and a Croatian-Latin) and a foreword to one of it prove that the author considered himself a Croat.

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Abstract  

In this work the term blank signifies total radiation of the sample analyzed except that the element to be determined (analyte) is absent. On the basis of the evaluation of the blank components (nuclear and spectral interferences, air-nitrogen between grains etc.), a semiempirical formula for calculating the nitrogen content in plant grain samples is proposed. The reliability of the results obtained with the use of this formula has been demonstrated for five sorts of seeds (rye, wheat, barley, broad bean and soybean) which have been analyzed by the Kjeldahl method and 14 MeV neutron activation analysis, respectively.

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