Authors:D. Butkus, B. Lukšienė, and M. Konstantinova
Soil and meadow grass were sampled in the whole territory of Lithuania in 1992–2000. For the laboratory experiment, spring
wheat Triticum aestivum L. “Nandu” was used because its root system type is similar to that of perennial meadow grass. The 137Cs soil-to-plant transfer factor of spring wheat was determined and the results were compared with the predicted values using
a compartment model of soil-to-plant transfer and with the results of the field experiment. The results of comparing the measured
and calculated transfer factor using the model show rather good coincidence, however, the calculated values were overestimated.
The reason for overestimation can be that the uptake rate is not influenced only by the soil-to-plant transfer. The results
of the model experiment (from 0.005 m2·kg−1 to 0.053 m2·kg−1) are close to those of the field measurements for grass (from 0.013 m2·kg−1 in 1992–1995 to 0.10 m2·kg−1 in 1999–2000).
Ultracentrifugation was used as a non-destructive method to separate dough into liquid, gel, gluten, starch and bottom phases. The protein composition in the different phases was investigated for dough prepared from spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The SDS-PAGE, SE-HPLC and RP-HPLC methods were used for the analysis. The wheat protein composition of the liquid and gel phases consisted of albumins, globulins and traces of gliadins and glutenins. The gluten phase contained proteins extractable with all the extraction buffers used. A similar protein composition was found in the starch and bottom phases, but in considerably lower amounts. Specific LMW glutenin subunits were identified in the gluten phase by RP-HPLC. The albumin composition differed in the gel phase compared to the gluten and bottom phases. Differences in protein composition due to mixing methods were detected only for the albumin composition in the liquid phases.
Authors:A. P. Glinushkin, O. O. Beloshapkina, A. A. Solovykh, V. S. Lukyantsev, A. A. Batmanova, G. V. Sudarenkov, and J. Molnár
The identification of pathogenic agents isolated from infected wheat seeds and plants, collected in the Southern Ural and characterized by an atypical manifestation of bacterial infection (yellow leaf tips), has been carried out by direct microbiological and molecular methods. In addition, an indirect identification by the hypersensitive reaction (HR) approach has been performed simultaneously with the pathogenicity assessment of isolates using an indicator plant Plectranthus australis R. Br. Isolated samples have been microbiologically identified as Xanthomonas sp. According to the results of the PCR identification with species-specific primers, isolated samples represent Xanthomonas translucens; the reliability of the obtained results is corroborated by the hypersensitive reaction approach used also to assess the pathogenicity of isolates. Winter wheat, especially cv. Pionerskaya 23, where both X. translucens and Pantoea agglomerans were found, suffered more severe symptoms than spring wheat that was only affected by strains of X. translucens. To improve the reliability of the primary diagnostics of a bacterial character of seed infection, the provoking of the pathogen development by temperature or pH stress is proposed.
In 2005–2008 virulence of the wheat leaf rust population was studied on Thatcher near-isogenic lines with
Lr1, Lr2a, Lr2b, Lr2c, Lr3a, Lr9, Lr10, Lr11, Lr15, Lr17, Lr19, Lr21, Lr23, Lr24, Lr26
. Samples of leaf rust were obtained from different parts of the Czech Republic. A total of 233 wheat leaf rust isolates were analyzed. Resistance gene
was effective to all tested isolates as in the four previous years. Virulence to
(0.8% of the analysed isolates) was found. Gene
conditioned resistance to almost all collections and a lower frequency of virulence was also observed on
. Twenty-six winter wheat cultivars, seven spring wheat cultivars and seven winter triticale cultivars registered in 2005–2008 were tested with 7 leaf rust isolates. Winter wheat cultivars Biscay, Mulan and Orlando were resistant to all isolates and were also resistant in field trials.
Authors:J. Kumari, S. Kumar, N. Singh, S.S. Vaish, S. Das, A. Gupta, and J.C. Rana
One thousand four hundred and eighty three spring wheat germplasm (Triticum aestivum L.) lines comprising Indian as well as exotic lines were screened for resistance to spot blotch disease during winter 2014-15 at hot spot locations i.e., Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and Uttar Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Cooch Behar. Severity of the disease at different stages beginning from tillering to dough stage was recorded. Location Severity Index (LSI) of Varanasi was higher than Cooch Behar. Twenty eight accessions were resistant or highly resistant at both locations. These 28 accessions were validated during the winter season (2015–2016). These germplasm were also evaluated at four environments for agronomic traits. Out of 28 accessions, seven (IC564121, IC529684, IC443669, IC443652, IC529962, IC548325 and EC178071-331) were highly resistant across the locations and over the years of study. These accessions comprised one exotic and six indigenous accessions belonging to Uttarakhand and Haryana. Two lines (IC529962 and IC443652) had higher yield than the best check at all the locations. These lines showing highly resistant reaction alongwith wider adaptability can be expedited for direct cultivation or for the development of high yielding and disease resistant cultivars. These lines can also be used for identification of novel resistance gene using allele mining tools and their deployment for the development of spot blotch resistant cultivars.
Authors:Kornélia Leskó, Livia Simon-Sarkadi, Éva Stefanovits-Bányai, Zoltán Végh, and Gábor Galiba
Two wheat cultivars (
L. cv. Chinese Spring and Cappelle Desprez) differing in drought stress tolerance were treated with two concentrations of cadmium (10
to investigate whether there is also any difference in their heavy-metal tolerance. Overpressured layer chromatography (OPLC) with off-line fluorescence detection was used to monitor cadmium stress-induced changes in the polyamine content of wheat seedlings. Significant differences were found between the spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put) content of the two wheat cultivars. The Spd content of the moderately drought-tolerant Chinese Spring increased both in shoots and roots at the higher Cd concentration compared with the control whereas in the drought-sensitive Cappelle Desprez the Spd level was reduced by both Cd treatments. Put content increased with the amount of Cd to which the roots of Chinese Spring wheat were exposed. In the Cappelle Desprez cultivar the Put content of both organs was higher at both Cd concentrations compared with the control.
Authors:F. S. Pelser, M.T. Labuschagne, B. Wentzel, and A. van Biljon
The mixograph performs certain rheological measurements during dough mixing and is a good predictor of wheat end-use quality. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and the heritability of mixing characteristics measured with Mixsmart® software and some quality characteristics in hard red spring wheat parents and their F1 progeny. Six parents varying in midline peak time and envelope peak time were crossed in a half diallel design. Parents and progeny were planted in three different environments. General combining ability (GCA) was a significant source of variation for the measured characteristics, and parents differed widely in terms of GCA effects. Midline-development time, -peak integral and -peak time showed high narrow sense heritability. Envelope peak-integral and -tail width displayed high narrow sense heritability for some, but not all locations. High GCA:SCA (specific combining ability) ratios indicated the prevalence of additive gene effects for midline-development time, -peak integral and -peak time, indicating that these characteristics are largely genetically determined, and that selection for them should lead to genetic gain.
Twelve biological-matrix, agricultural/food reference materials, Corn Stalk (Zea Mays) (NIST RM 8412), Corn Kernel (Zea Mays) (NIST RM 8413), Bovine Musele Powder (NIST RM 8414), Whole Egg Powder (NIST RM 8415), Microcrystalline Cellulose (NIST RM 8416), Wheat Gluten (NIST RM 8418), Corn Starch (NIST RM 8432), Corn Bran (NIST RM 8433), Whole Milk Powder (NIST RM 8435), Durum Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8436), Hard Red Spring Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8437) and Soft Winter Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8438) were developed. They were characterized with respect to elemental composition via two extensive international interlaboratory characterization campaigns providing 303 reference and informational concentration values for 34 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, F, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V, W, Zn) of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance. These products are available to the analytical community, for quality control of elemental composition analytical data, from the Standard Reference Materials Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
Authors:Tomohiro Ban, Naoyuki Kawad, Akira Yanagisawag, and Akane Takezaki
We review and report the progress of germplasm enhancement for FHB resistance in Japan. Since 1970s, numerous wheat and barley germplasms have been screened for FHB resistance in intensive national breeding system. Resistance to FHB varies not only among wheat varieties but also their wild relatives, but no accession has been found to be completely immune. Spring wheat varieties from the Japanese and Chinese gene pools were screened and analyzed for their genetic diversity. It showed the uniqueness of the Japanese gene pool, and its distinction from the Chinese one. We traced the pedigrees of resistant wheat varieties to examine genetic diversity and potential in Japanese breeding programs. ‘Shinchunaga’, in addition to ‘Saitama 29’ and local varieties such as ‘Nobeokabouzu-komugi’ and ‘Nyubai’, is considered to the main donors for moderate resistance to FHB in many Japanese commercial varieties. Another contributor ‘Sumai 3’ from China made gains of the resistance level for modern Japanese commercial varieties. These results showed the advancement in development of new varieties with pyramiding of genes to enrich FHB resistance and low level of mycotoxin contamination in the breeding programs.