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Abstract  

The response of temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) to irreversible crystallization of linear polymers was investigated by model calculations and compared to a number of measurements. Four different exotherms were added to a typical modulated, reversible heat-flow rate in order to simulate irreversible crystallization. It was found that the reversing heat-flow rate of the TMDSC in response to such irreversible crystallization exotherms is strongly affected by tbe shape of the transition and the phase-angle where the exotherm occurs. A comparison with the experimental data gave valuable insight into the transitions, as well as the nature of the TMDSC response which is usually limited to an analysis of the first harmonic term of the Fourier series that describes the heat-flow rate.

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Abstract  

The quality of measurement of heat capacity by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is based on the symmetry of the twin calorimeters. This symmetry is of particular importance for the temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC) since positive and negative deviations from symmetry cannot be distinguished in the most popular analysis methods. Three different DSC instruments capable of modulation have been calibrated for asymmetry using standard non-modulated measurements and a simple method is described that avoids potentially large errors when using the reversing heat capacity as the measured quantity. It consists of overcompensating the temperature-dependent asymmetry by increasing the mass of the sample pan.

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Abstract  

The determination of heat capacity data with sawtooth-type, temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry is analyzed using the Mettler-Toledo 820 ADSC™temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimeter (TMDSC). Heat capacities were calculated via the amplitudes of the first and higher harmonics of the Fourier series of the heat flow and heating rates. At modulation periods lower than about 150 s, the heat capacity deviates increasingly to smaller values and requires a calibration as function of frequency. An earlier derived correction function which was applied to the sample temperature-controlled power compensation calorimeter enables an empirical correction down to modulation periods of about 20 s. The correction function is determined by analysis of the higher harmonics of the Fourier transform from a single measurement of sufficient long modulation period. The correction function reveals that the time constant of the instrument is about 5 s rad−1 when a standard aluminum pan is used. The influence of pan type and sample mass on the time constant is determined, the correction for the asymmetry of the system is described, and the effect of smoothing of the modulated heat flow rate data is discussed.

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Abstract  

A newly developed Micro-Thermal Analyzer affords images based on thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and permits localized thermal analyses on samples of a square micrometer area by combining the imaging ability of the atomic force microscope and the thermal characterization ability of temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Since thermal penetration depth depends on frequency, one can obtain depth profiles of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity by varying the modulation frequency. Also, the analyzer can be used to characterize phase-transition temperatures, such as glass and melting transitions, of small sample regions with a precision of about ±3 K. Heating rates can be varied between 1 and 1500 K min–1. Modulation frequencies can be applied in the range from 2 to 100 kHz. We applied this new type of instrument to characterize microscopic thermal and structural properties of various polymer systems. The operation principles of the instrument are described, application examples are presented, and the future of the technique is discussed.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Li-Fang Song, Chun-Hong Jiang, Jian Zhang, Li-Xian Sun, Fen Xu, Yun-Qi Tian, Wan-Sheng You, Zhong Cao, Ling Zhang, and Dao-Wu Yang

Abstract  

A novel two-dimensional metal organic framework MgBTC [MgBTC(OCN)2·2H2O, where BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate] has been synthesized solvothermally and characterized by single crystal XRD, powder XRD, FT-IR spectra. The low-temperature molar heat capacities of MgBTC were measured by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) over the temperature range from 190 to 350 K for the first time. No phase transition or thermal anomaly was observed in the experimental temperature range. The thermodynamic parameters of MgBTC such as entropy and enthalpy relative to reference temperature of 298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacities data. Moreover, the thermal stability and decomposition of MgBTC was further investigated through thermogravimetry (TG)-mass spectrometer (MS). Four stages of mass loss were observed in the TG curve. TG-MS curve indicated that the products of oxidative degradation of MgBTC are H2O, N2, CO2 and CO. The powder XRD showed that the mixture after TG contains MgO and graphite.

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Abstract  

The measured signal of the temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) is discussed in the case of polymer melting. The common data evaluation procedure of TMDSC-signals is the Fourier analysis. The resulting information is the amplitude and the phase shift of the first harmonic of the periodic heat flow component. It is shown that this procedure is not sufficient for quantitative discussions if deviations from the symmetric curve shape occur in the measured heat flow curves. For polymer melting it is demonstrated that asymmetric curves will be measured if the experimental temperature amplitude is too large. In this paper a data evaluation method is presented, which is based on the Fourier transform of the measured curves. The peaks of the first and second harmonics in the resulting spectra are used for the analysis of the asymmetry of the measured curves. In the case of polymer melting this analysis yields the maximum temperature amplitude which follows a correct linear data evaluation. This maximum temperature amplitude depends on the material.

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Abstract  

Zinc formate dihydrate has been synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, FTIR spectra and thermal analysis. The molar heat capacity of the coordination compound was measured by a temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) over the temperature range from 200 to 330 K for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy vs. 298.15 K based on the above molar heat capacity were calculated. The thermal decomposition characteristics of this compound were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TG curve showed that the thermal decomposition occurred in two stages. The first step was the dehydration process of the coordination compound, and the second step corresponded to the decomposition of the anhydrous zinc formate. The apparent activation energy of the dehydration step of the compound was calculated by the Kissinger method using experimental data of TG analysis. There are three sharply endothermic peaks in the temperature range from 300 to 650 K in DSC curve.

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Abstract  

Isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was crystallized using temperature modulation in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to thicken the crystals formed on cooling from the melt. A cool-heat modulation method was adopted for the preparation of the samples under a series of conditions. The effect of modulation parameters, such as temperature amplitude and period was monitored with the heating rate that followed. Thickening of the lamellae as a result of the crystallization treatment enabled by the cool-heat method lead to an increase in the peak melting temperature and the final traces of melting. For instance, iPP melting peak shifted by up to 3.5°C with temperature amplitude of 1.0°C while the crystallinity was increased from 0.45 (linearly cooled) to 0.53. Multiple melting endotherms were also observed in some cases, but this was sensitive to the temperature changes experienced on cooling. Even with a slower underlying cooling rate and small temperature amplitudes, some recrystallization and reorganization occurred during the subsequent heating scan. The crystallinity was increased significantly and this was attributed to the crystal perfection that occurred at the crystal growth surface. In addition, temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) has been used to study the melting of iPP for various crystallization treatments. The reversing and non-reversing contribution under the experimental time scale was modified by the relative crystal stability formed during crystallization. Much of the melting of iPP was found to be irreversible.

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Abstract  

The glass transition of lyophilized materials is normally measured by conventional or temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). However, because of the weakness of these transitions when protein concentrations are high, these techniques are often unable to detect the glass transition (T g). High ramp rate DSC, where heating rates of 100 K per min and higher are used, has been shown to be able to detect weak transitions in a wide range of materials and has been applied to these materials in previous work. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is also known to be much more sensitive to the presence of relaxations in materials than other commonly used thermal techniques. The development of a method to handle powders in the DMA makes it now possible to apply this technique to protein and protein-excipient mixtures. HRR DSC, TMA and DMA were used to characterize the glass transition of lyophilized materials and the results correlated. DMA is shown to be a viable alternative to HRR DSC and TMA for lyophilized materials.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Yanni Qi, Jian Zhang, Shujun Qiu, Lixian Sun, Fen Xu, Min Zhu, Liuzhang Ouyang, and Dalin Sun

Abstract  

Polyaniline/NiO (PANI/NiO) composites were synthesized by in situ polymerization at the presence of HCl (as dopant). FTIR, TEM and XRD were used to characterize the composites. Thermogravimetry (TG)–mass spectrometer (MS) and temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) were used to study the thermal stability, decomposition and glass transition temperature (T g) of the composites, respectively. FTIR and XRD results showed that NiO nanoparticles connected with PANI chains in the PANI/NiO composites. TEM results exhibited that the morphologies of PANI/NiO composites were mostly spherical, which were different from the wirelike PANI. TG–MS curves indicated that the products for oxidative degradation of both PANI and PANI/NiO composite were H2O, CO2, NO and NO2. TG curves showed that with NiO contents increased in PANI/NiO composites, thermal stability of PANI/NiO composites increased firstly and then decreased when the NiO content was higher than 66.2 wt%. T g of PANI/NiO composites also increased from 163.19 to 252.36 °C with NiO content increasing from 0 to 50 wt%, and then decreased with NiO content increasing continuously.

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