A novel metal-organic frameworks [Cu2(OH)(2,2′-bpy)2(BTC) · 2H2O]n (CuMOF, BTC = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, 2,2′-bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) has been synthesized hydrothermally and characterized
by single crystal XRD, FT-IR spectra. The low-temperature molar heat capacities were measured by temperature modulated differential
scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy relative to reference
temperature 298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacity data. Moreover, the thermal stability and the decomposition
mechanism of CuMOF were investigated by TG-MS (thermogravimetry-mass spectrometer). A four-stage mass loss was observed in
the TG curve. MS curve indicated that the gas products for oxidative degradation of CuMOF were H2O, CO2, NO and NO2.
Authors:A. Boller, I. Okazaki, K. Ishikiriyama, G. Zhang, and B. Wunderlich
The quality of measurement of heat capacity by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is based on the symmetry of the twin
calorimeters. This symmetry is of particular importance for the temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC) since positive and negative
deviations from symmetry cannot be distinguished in the most popular analysis methods. Three different DSC instruments capable
of modulation have been calibrated for asymmetry using standard non-modulated measurements and a simple method is described
that avoids potentially large errors when using the reversing heat capacity as the measured quantity. It consists of overcompensating
the temperature-dependent asymmetry by increasing the mass of the sample pan.
A novel two-dimensional metal organic framework MgBTC [MgBTC(OCN)2·2H2O, where BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate] has been synthesized solvothermally and characterized by single crystal XRD, powder
XRD, FT-IR spectra. The low-temperature molar heat capacities of MgBTC were measured by temperature modulated differential
scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) over the temperature range from 190 to 350 K for the first time. No phase transition or thermal
anomaly was observed in the experimental temperature range. The thermodynamic parameters of MgBTC such as entropy and enthalpy
relative to reference temperature of 298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacities data. Moreover, the thermal
stability and decomposition of MgBTC was further investigated through thermogravimetry (TG)-mass spectrometer (MS). Four stages
of mass loss were observed in the TG curve. TG-MS curve indicated that the products of oxidative degradation of MgBTC are
H2O, N2, CO2 and CO. The powder XRD showed that the mixture after TG contains MgO and graphite.
The measured signal of the temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) is discussed in the case of polymer
melting. The common data evaluation procedure of TMDSC-signals is the Fourier analysis. The resulting information is the amplitude
and the phase shift of the first harmonic of the periodic heat flow component. It is shown that this procedure is not sufficient
for quantitative discussions if deviations from the symmetric curve shape occur in the measured heat flow curves. For polymer
melting it is demonstrated that asymmetric curves will be measured if the experimental temperature amplitude is too large.
In this paper a data evaluation method is presented, which is based on the Fourier transform of the measured curves. The peaks
of the first and second harmonics in the resulting spectra are used for the analysis of the asymmetry of the measured curves.
In the case of polymer melting this analysis yields the maximum temperature amplitude which follows a correct linear data
evaluation. This maximum temperature amplitude depends on the material.
Authors:J. Carpenter, D. Katayama, L. Liu, W. Chonkaew, and K. Menard
The glass transition of lyophilized materials is normally measured by conventional or temperature modulated differential scanning
calorimetry (TMDSC). However, because of the weakness of these transitions when protein concentrations are high, these techniques
are often unable to detect the glass transition (Tg). High ramp rate DSC, where heating rates of 100 K per min and higher are used, has been shown to be able to detect weak
transitions in a wide range of materials and has been applied to these materials in previous work. Dynamic mechanical analysis
(DMA) is also known to be much more sensitive to the presence of relaxations in materials than other commonly used thermal
techniques. The development of a method to handle powders in the DMA makes it now possible to apply this technique to protein
and protein-excipient mixtures. HRR DSC, TMA and DMA were used to characterize the glass transition of lyophilized materials
and the results correlated. DMA is shown to be a viable alternative to HRR DSC and TMA for lyophilized materials.
Authors:Yanni Qi, Jian Zhang, Shujun Qiu, Lixian Sun, Fen Xu, Min Zhu, Liuzhang Ouyang, and Dalin Sun
Polyaniline/NiO (PANI/NiO) composites were synthesized by in situ polymerization at the presence of HCl (as dopant). FTIR,
TEM and XRD were used to characterize the composites. Thermogravimetry (TG)–mass spectrometer (MS) and temperature modulated
differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) were used to study the thermal stability, decomposition and glass transition temperature
(Tg) of the composites, respectively. FTIR and XRD results showed that NiO nanoparticles connected with PANI chains in the PANI/NiO
composites. TEM results exhibited that the morphologies of PANI/NiO composites were mostly spherical, which were different
from the wirelike PANI. TG–MS curves indicated that the products for oxidative degradation of both PANI and PANI/NiO composite
were H2O, CO2, NO and NO2. TG curves showed that with NiO contents increased in PANI/NiO composites, thermal stability of PANI/NiO composites increased
firstly and then decreased when the NiO content was higher than 66.2 wt%. Tg of PANI/NiO composites also increased from 163.19 to 252.36 °C with NiO content increasing from 0 to 50 wt%, and then decreased
with NiO content increasing continuously.
Specific heat capacity of boron nitride-filled polybenzoxazine has been investigated by using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry, TMDSC, to study that it is a composite structure-insensitive property, i.e. independent of the degree of filler network formation. Many aspects of boron nitride filler such as particle size, particle surface area, particle shape, and filler loading are investigated. At the same filler loading, we observe insignificant change in composite specific heat capacity due to the effect of particle size, particle surface area, and particle shape. Filler loading is found to be the only aspect of filler that can change the specific heat capacity of this filled system. A linear relationship between the composite heat capacities and filler loading is observed and can be predicted by the rule of mixture with an error within ±1%. Within the temperature range betwen 0 and 80°C, the temperature dependent heat capacity of this composite can simply be expressed in the form of a linear equation: Cp=A+BT.
Authors:I. Moon, R. Androsch, W. Chen, and B. Wunderlich
A newly developed Micro-Thermal Analyzer affords images based on thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and permits localized thermal analyses on samples of a square micrometer area by combining the imaging ability of the atomic force microscope and the thermal characterization ability of temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Since thermal penetration depth depends on frequency, one can obtain depth profiles of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity by varying the modulation frequency. Also, the analyzer can be used to characterize phase-transition temperatures, such as glass and melting transitions, of small sample regions with a precision of about ±3 K. Heating rates can be varied between 1 and 1500 K min–1. Modulation frequencies can be applied in the range from 2 to 100 kHz. We applied this new type of instrument to characterize microscopic thermal and structural properties of various polymer systems. The operation principles of the instrument are described, application examples are presented, and the future of the technique is discussed.
Authors:S. Qiu, H. Chu, J. Zhang, Y. Qi, L. Sun, and F. Xu
The low-temperature molar heat capacities of CoPc and CoTMPP were measured by temperature modulated differential scanning
calorimetry (TMDSC) over the temperature range from 223 to 413 K for the first time. No phase transition or thermal anomaly
was observed in the experimental temperature range for CoPc. However, a structural change was found to be nonreversible for
CoTMPP in the temperature range of 368–403 K, which was further validated by the results of IR and XRD. The molar enthalpy
ΔHm and entropy ΔSm of phase transition of the CoTMPP were determined to be 3.301 kJ mol−1 and 8.596 J K−1 mol−1, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of CoPc and CoTMPP such as entropy and enthalpy relative to reference temperature
298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacity data. Moreover, the thermal stability of these two compounds
was further investigated through TG measurements. Three steps of mass loss were observed in the TG curve for CoPc and five
steps for CoTMPP.
Isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was crystallized using temperature modulation in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to thicken the crystals formed on cooling from the melt. A cool-heat modulation method was adopted for the preparation of the samples under a series of conditions. The effect of modulation parameters, such as temperature amplitude and period was monitored with the heating rate that followed. Thickening of the lamellae as a result of the crystallization treatment enabled by the cool-heat method lead to an increase in the peak melting temperature and the final traces of melting. For instance, iPP melting peak shifted by up to 3.5°C with temperature amplitude of 1.0°C while the crystallinity was increased from 0.45 (linearly cooled) to 0.53. Multiple melting endotherms were also observed in some cases, but this was sensitive to the temperature changes experienced on cooling. Even with a slower underlying cooling rate and small temperature amplitudes, some recrystallization and reorganization occurred during the subsequent heating scan. The crystallinity was increased significantly and this was attributed to the crystal perfection that occurred at the crystal growth surface. In addition, temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) has been used to study the melting of iPP for various crystallization treatments. The reversing and non-reversing contribution under the experimental time scale was modified by the relative crystal stability formed during crystallization. Much of the melting of iPP was found to be irreversible.