Authors:V. Krstanović, A. Lalić, I. Kosović, N. Velić, Kristina Mastanjević, and K. Mastanjević
Although β-glucans in cereals are desirable as healthy diet components, high levels of β-glucans in malting barley are unacceptable because they can cause unsatisfactory degradation of cell walls during malting. The aim of this study was to investigate the β-glucan content in twelve Croatian and two German barley varieties at three representative locations in Eastern Croatia over three consecutive seasons (2012–2014). Total β-glucan content in barley samples was determined using enzymatic method. Most of the investigated barley varieties had total β-glucan content lower or significantly lower than 4%. Furthermore, a distinct and clear genotype influence was noticed. No significant difference was found between years, but between locations Osijek and Tovarnik.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the artificial inoculation of barley kernels and leaves with a suspension of spores and mycelium of species belonging to the genera Ascochyta, Bipolaris, Drechslera and Fusarium. The following procedures were applied: inoculation of kernels germinating on blotting paper, inoculation of kernels germinating in the soil and spraying of young barley plants. Intensity of the occurring disease symptoms depended on the fungal species used and the method of inoculation. All genera of fungi used for inoculation of kernels on blotting paper statistically significantly reduced the percentage of germinated kernels. In the case of inoculation of kernels sown in the soil, emergence rates of barley plants were statistically significantly reduced only by B. sorokiniana (22.5–70%) and Fusarium sp. (5–55%), the control 92.5–95%. The use of B. sorokiniana in the inoculation of young barley plants caused spots (30–60% of infected plants), which were not observed in species from the other genera.
Authors:R. Verma, R. Malik, R. Kumar, and S. Singh
A study was undertaken to determine the genetics of corn leaf aphid (CLA) resistance in barley under controlled conditions with artificial inoculation at adult plant stage. Inheritance of CLA resistance was investigated in five resistant barley genotypes (EB921, EB2507, Manjula, DL529 and K144) in crosses with susceptible parent Alfa93 in F1, F2, F3 and backcross (BCF1) generations. The aphid inoculation was done using the brush method as well as the detached leaf method. Individual plants were classified in resistant, moderately resistant, susceptible and highly susceptible categories base on number per shoot as well as multiplication of CLA on any of the fresh, young leaf. The plants scored as resistant or moderately resistant were observed twice more at 10 days interval to confirm their reaction. Resistance was governed by a single dominant gene in EB921, DL529 and K144, while it was monogenic recessive in Manjula and EB2507. These diverse sources may be used in breeding for CLA resistance in barley improvement programme.
Authors:G. Karimzadeh, R. Darvishzadeh, M. Jalali-Javaran, and H. Dehghani
., Cattivelli, L. (1996) Genetic analysis of the accumulation of COR14 proteins in wild (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated (Hordeumvulgare) barley. Theor. Appl. Genet. 93, 975-981.
Genetic analysis of the accumulation of COR14
The feeding period of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, an important vector of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), was studied in six varieties of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in an attempt to explain the resistance mechanisms in some barley varieties to BYDV. There was no significant difference in aphid feeding period between the resistant and susceptible varieties. The mechanisms underlying BYDV resistance do not seem to involve factors related to alterations in the feeding period. Suggestions for future studies are highlighted.
Authors:Anett Harsányi, Béla Böddi, Károly Bóka, and Richard Gáborjányi
The effect of
Barley stripe mosaic virus
(BSMV) infection was studied on the ultrastructure of etioplasts and the greening process of barley (
cv. Pannónia) plants infected by seed transmission. The leaves of 7–11-day old etiolated seedlings were examined with transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectroscopy. The etioplasts of infected seedlings contained smaller prolamellar bodies with less regular membrane structure while prothylakoid content was higher than in the control. Characteristic effect was observed in the process of the Shibata-shift: 40 min delay was observed in the infected leaves. The results of this work proved that BSMV infection significantly delays or inhibits the plastid development and the formation of photosynthetic apparatus.
A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of K nutrition and genotypic variation on the dry matter (DM) accumulation, and the K concentration, accumulation, uptake and utilization efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Successive increases in potassium nutrition had a significant effect on the dry matter and K accumulation either in the total or in various plant parts of barley at the tillering, stem elongation, heading and maturity growth stages. K nutrition also led to significantly higher grain yield with each unit K application than without K application. The yield increase due to K application was mainly due to the improvement in spike development from tillers. Dry matter and K accumulation in various plant parts varied significantly between genotypes at the main growth stages. Among the various plant parts, the stem contained the highest K concentration, had the highest K accumulation at maturity and changed considerably with the K level, while other plant parts remained relatively unchanged. Among the eleven genotypes, genotype 98-6 had the highest grain yield and the K use efficiency of this genotype was 10.4 kg grain per kg K applied. It could thus be used as a breeding line to breed barley varieties for higher productivity under rainfed conditions with low available soil potassium.