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., Abadía, J. (1999): Effects of salinity on chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under a triple-line-source sprinkler system in the field. Photosynthetica , 36 , 375

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., Cattivelli, L. (1996) Genetic analysis of the accumulation of COR14 proteins in wild (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated (Hordeum vulgare) barley. Theor. Appl. Genet. 93, 975-981. Genetic analysis of the accumulation of COR14

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A study was undertaken at the Directorate of Wheat Research experimental station, Karnal, India, to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (30, 60 and 90 kg/ha) and irrigation (one, two and three) on yield and grain quality traits of two and six row type malt barley genotypes. The mean grain yield significantly increased from 41.9 to 45.8 q/ha with increase in nitrogen dose from 30 to 90 kg/ha and 41.8 to 45.9 q/ha with increase in irrigations from one to three. The two and six row barleys had almost similar yield potential at higher nitrogen application and irrigation frequency but the six-row type had advantage at lower nitrogen and irrigation. Varietal effects were significant for all the traits, while N significantly affected only grain yield, spikes per unit area, 1000-grain weight and husk content. Irrigation effects were significant for bulk density, grain yield, spikes per unit area, and grains per spike. Traits like grain bulk density, proportion of bold and thin grains and husk content are mainly affected by variety and less affected by management practices.

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Fungicide application is one measure available to reduce the risk of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and mycotoxin contamination in barley. The stage at or near anthesis, or at full head emergence, is generally thought to be optimal for fungicide application, regardless of cultivar. However, we have found that the most critical time for Fusarium graminearum infection and mycotoxin accumulation in barley differed among cultivars. Whereas open-flowering cultivars were most susceptible at anthesis, closed-flowering cultivars were considerably resistant at anthesis but became susceptible after ‘spent’ anther extrusion. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the timing of fungicide application on FHB and mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol and nivalenol) accumulation in closed-flowering barley. Thiophanate-methyl fungicide was applied at different developmental stages, from before anthesis to 30 days after anthesis (DAA), under artificial inoculation conditions in the field in which inoculum spores were provided throughout the testing period. As expected, the optimal timing for chemical control of FHB and mycotoxin accumulation was the time around the beginning of spent anther extrusion, rather than at anthesis. Later application, as late as 30 DAA, was also effective in controlling mycotoxin accumulation, although it was not effective in controlling disease levels. Our results suggest that the development of control strategies that cover the late stage as well as the early stage is desirable to reduce the risk of mycotoxin contamination in barley.

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The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the artificial inoculation of barley kernels and leaves with a suspension of spores and mycelium of species belonging to the genera Ascochyta, Bipolaris, Drechslera and Fusarium. The following procedures were applied: inoculation of kernels germinating on blotting paper, inoculation of kernels germinating in the soil and spraying of young barley plants. Intensity of the occurring disease symptoms depended on the fungal species used and the method of inoculation. All genera of fungi used for inoculation of kernels on blotting paper statistically significantly reduced the percentage of germinated kernels. In the case of inoculation of kernels sown in the soil, emergence rates of barley plants were statistically significantly reduced only by B. sorokiniana (22.5–70%) and Fusarium sp. (5–55%), the control 92.5–95%. The use of B. sorokiniana in the inoculation of young barley plants caused spots (30–60% of infected plants), which were not observed in species from the other genera.

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new hybrids of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) × winter barley ( Hordeum vulgare ). Genome , 43 , 1045–1054. Sutka J. Production and meiotic pairing behavior of new hybrids of

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A study was undertaken to determine the genetics of corn leaf aphid (CLA) resistance in barley under controlled conditions with artificial inoculation at adult plant stage. Inheritance of CLA resistance was investigated in five resistant barley genotypes (EB921, EB2507, Manjula, DL529 and K144) in crosses with susceptible parent Alfa93 in F1, F2, F3 and backcross (BCF1) generations. The aphid inoculation was done using the brush method as well as the detached leaf method. Individual plants were classified in resistant, moderately resistant, susceptible and highly susceptible categories base on number per shoot as well as multiplication of CLA on any of the fresh, young leaf. The plants scored as resistant or moderately resistant were observed twice more at 10 days interval to confirm their reaction. Resistance was governed by a single dominant gene in EB921, DL529 and K144, while it was monogenic recessive in Manjula and EB2507. These diverse sources may be used in breeding for CLA resistance in barley improvement programme.

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The feeding period of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, an important vector of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), was studied in six varieties of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in an attempt to explain the resistance mechanisms in some barley varieties to BYDV. There was no significant difference in aphid feeding period between the resistant and susceptible varieties. The mechanisms underlying BYDV resistance do not seem to involve factors related to alterations in the feeding period. Suggestions for future studies are highlighted.

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Scald (Rhynchosporium secalis; Rs) and spot blotch (Cochliobolus sativus; Cs) are important diseases of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) worldwide. Similar mechanisms and gene transcripts are assumed to be involved in the barley defense response since both these pathogens are necrotrophic fungi. In the current study, the transcriptome in leaves of the same barley genotype WI2291 inoculated with Rs and Cs was compared at different times postinoculation. Comparison of data for barley Rs- and Cs- inoculated plants with mockinoculated plants revealed gene expression changes that included basal defense transcripts and transcripts specific to the establishment of a necrotrophic interaction with associated fungi. During barley–pathogen interaction pathway, WI2291 activated a higher number of genes and pathways in response to Rs infection than in response to Cs invasion. However, families of genes encoding pectin-degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism enzymes, transporters and peptidases are expanded to cover Rs and Cs at an early stage following inoculation. Our results demonstrate differences in the pathways and activated genes of barely cv. WI291challenged by Rs and Cs, and that expression patterns of the same defenseassociated genes were altered in adaptation to different pathogens. Our work provides new insights into the underlying mechanisms related to regulation of different pathways in response to fungal infection.

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Research of cereal glycoproteins is important for understanding of their functional properties, their role during technological processing of cereals and it can serve as a valuable tool for the detection of cereal allergens. The main intention of this study was the screening of profile of water-soluble glycoproteins present in barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat durum (Triticum durum) and spelt (Triticum spelta). Lectin monolithic HPLC column was used for rapid and effective enrichment of glycoprotein fractions. Captured glycoproteins were electrophoretically separated and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Presented procedure resulted in identification of a group of N-glycoprotein candidates with affinity to lectin concanavalin A (ConA). Such molecules could have, among others, an allergenic potential. Majority of captured low-molecular-weight glycoproteins belong to alpha amylase/trypsin inhibitors family. However, most of the higher-molecular-weight proteins identified in lectin bound fractions have not been described as glycoproteins yet. Obtained results improved the knowledge about (glyco)protein content in cereal grain. The connection of lectin HPLC-GE-MS was proved as a convenient strategy for identification of cereal glycoproteins. Suggested method is universal and can be applied for various cereals and food-stuffs.

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