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In this study, six numerical data sets are presented valid for eighteen thyme (Thymus L.) species and characterizing three biological properties of these herbs, i.e., antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activity. Four data sets characterize antioxidant properties, one data set characterizes antibacterial property, and one data set characterizes anticancer activity. Antioxidant properties were measured with two free radical standards (DPPH and ABTS), two free radical scavenger standards (trolox and gallic acid), and three analytical techniques (EPR spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible [UV–vis] spectrophotometry, and the dot blot test with bioautographic detection). Antibacterial activity was tested upon the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) strain, and anticancer activity was evaluated upon the human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HCT116). It was found out that the thyme extracts characterize with all three biological activities (yet with anticancer activity not very strongly pronounced) and that in quantitative terms, each activity strongly depends on the thyme species considered. An ultimate goal of this study was to investigate if any quantitatively confirmed correlation exists among these three biological activities, which might point out to a common mechanism of their action. To this effect, six sets of numerical data underwent hierarchical clustering and Principal Component Analysis. Based on the results obtained, no quantitative correlation was established among antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activity of the thyme species, which seems indicative of different molecular mechanisms of these three actions.

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In this study, Lactobacillus pentosus expressing porcine lactoferrin (pLF) was tested for in vitro antibacterial activity and for its ability to enhance immunity induced by an orally administered Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) vaccine. The cDNA encoding N-terminus of pLF was cloned into a Lactobacillus-specific plasmid to produce L. pentosus pLF expressing transformants (pPG612.1-pLFN/ L. pentosus). The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant pLF protein inhibited bacterial growth in vitro. The supernatant of pPG612.1-pLF-N/L. pentosus had an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus strain CVCC26003, Bacillus subtilis strain CVCC63501, Escherichia coli strain CVCC10141 and Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica Choleraesuis strain CVCC79102, while it did not inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus casei strain ATCC393. A mouse model was established to test the effectiveness of the orally administered probiotic L. pentosus recombinant strain in the gastrointestinal tract. Mice were immunised with an attenuated porcine Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) vaccine. Serum antibody levels determined using a mouse Aujeszky’s disease IgG ELISA showed that IgG levels were significantly higher in the pPG612.1-pLFN/L. pentosus group than in the PBS and Lactobacillus pentosus groups at days 7 and 21 (P < 0.01) and at day 14 (P < 0.05), indicating that this oral recombinant strain can improve the effectiveness of the vaccine and play a role in immune enhancement through humoral immunity. These results suggest that the recombinant Lactobacillus pentosus not only has the beneficial characteristics of lactic acid bacteria but also produces biologically functional lactoferrin.

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Metal complexes of fenoterol drug

Preparation, spectroscopic, thermal, and biological activity characterization

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
M. Soliman
,
Gehad Mohamed
, and
Eman Mohamed

Abstract

Metal complexes of fenoterol (FEN) drug are prepared and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, magnetic moment, molar conductance, and thermal analyses (TG and DTA) techniques. From the elemental analyses data, the complexes are formed in 1:2 [Metal]:[FEN] ratio and they are proposed to have the general formula [Cu(FEN)2]·2H2O; [M(FEN)2(H2O)2yH2O (where M = Mn(II) (y = 2), Co(II) (y = 4), Ni(II) (y = 4), and Zn(II) (y = 0) and [Cr(FEN)2(H2O)2]Cl·H2O. The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal chelates are non-electrolytes except Cr(III) complex, having 1:1 electrolyte. IR spectra show that FEN is coordinated to the metal ions in a uninegative bidentate manner with ON donor sites of the aliphatic –OH and secondary amine –NH. From the magnetic moment measurements, it is found that the geometrical structures of these complexes are octahedral (Cr(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)) and square planar (Cu(II)). The thermal behavior of these chelates is studied using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG and DTA) techniques. The results obtained show that the hydrated complexes lose water molecules of hydration followed immediately by decomposition of the coordinated water and ligand molecules in the successive unseparate steps. The FEN drug, in comparison to its metal complexes is also screened for their antibacterial activity against bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi), Yeasts (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cervisiae), and Fungi (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus). The activity data show that the metal complexes have antibacterial activity like that of the parent FEN drug against one or more species.

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, S. M. , Chawla , N. , Singh , P. K. , Pinnaka , A. K. , Korpole , S. ( 2013 ) Characterization of two antimicrobial peptides produced by a halotolerant Bacillus subtilis strain SK.DU.4 isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample . AMB Exp. 3

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. 287 , 8920 – 8931 . 5. Kimura , K. , Tran , L. S. , Uchida , I. , Itoh , Y. ( 2004 ) Characterization of Bacillus subtilis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and its

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Pathol. 3 , 185 – 195 . Leelasuphakul , W. , Hemmanee , P. and Chuenchitt , S. ( 2008 ): Growth inhibitory properties of Bacillus subtilis strains and their metabolites against the green mold pathogen ( Penicillium digitatum Sacc.) of citrus

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-KADER , A.S.S.A. , E L-DOSOUKY , M.A. , A BOUWARDA , A. , A LL , S.M.A. & O SMAN , M.I. ( 2012 ): Characterization of partially purified β galactosidase from Bacillus subtilis . J. Appl. Sci. Res. , 8 , 2379 – 2385

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. , Surendranatha, Reddy , E.C. , Zhou , X.G. , Groth , D.E. 2013 . Ultrastructural studies on the interaction between Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 (Integral) and the rice sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani . African J. of Microbiol. Res

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Canedo, M., Jimenez-Estrada, M., Cassani, J. & López-Munguía, A. (1999): Production of maltosylfructose (erlose) with levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis. Biocatalysis Biotransformation, 16, 475–485. López

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Beebe, J. A., Fierke, C. A. (1994) A kinetic mechanism for cleavage of precursor tRNA (Asp) catalyzed by the RNA component of Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease P. Biochemistry 33, 10294-10304. A kinetic mechanism for cleavage

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