Authors:A. Al-Ammar, E. Reitznerová, and R. Barnes
Two sample treatment methods are evaluated to provide accurate boron determination at low concentrations in biological and botanical samples. The first approach is a hot 1M nitric acid extraction of boron from the sample. The second technique uses wet digestion with concentrated sulfuric acid. The accuracy of the procedures was demonstrated with botanical and animal reference materials (Corn Bran RM 8433 and Whole Egg Powder RM 8415). At least three results are given for each reference material. Two are direct measurements of B using independent 10B and 11B calibration curves with a Be internal reference, and the third is obtained by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The 10B and 11B values are consistent for both acid treatment procedures. The IDMS results also are consistent. Overall results for Whole Egg Powder and Corn Bran RM's match the best-estimate values within their confidence intervals. These results demonstrate the ability to measure B accurately at the 0.3 µg/g concentration range. Thus, low-level B samples can be analyzed with accuracy and precision by the two approaches. These methods introduce very little dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the final solution and allow the use of large (2 g) sample aliquots. Direct introduction of biological fluids including whole blood serum also was evaluated critically for the determination of B.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium on Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata) based on hatching results and the activity of enzymes in the blood plasma. On day 6 of incubation, hatching eggs were injected into the egg albumen with 50 μl of saline solution containing Cd ions (CdCl2) at concentrations of 0 (control group), 1.3, 4.0, 7.5, 15.0 and 30 μg/egg, using 50 eggs per group. A gradual decrease in hatchability, from 52% in the control to 4% in the highest Cd dose group, was observed, with the LD50 calculated as 8 μg/egg. However, the impact of cadmium on the incidence of malformations of duck embryos has not been proven. Compared to the control group, N-acetyl-β-Dglucosaminidase activity increased by 30–50% (P ≤ 0.05) in the blood serum of ducklings in the groups receiving more than 7.5 μg Cd/egg, whereas an elevated activity of arylsulphatase (by 45%) was observed for a lower dose only (4 μg Cd/egg). A gradual increase in the activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases was observed (P ≤ 0.05), starting from the lowest exposure of 1.3 μg Cd/egg, by 155% and 53%, respectively. In conclusion, the results prove the dosedependent toxic impact of cadmium on embryogenesis and on the studied blood plasma enzyme activities of ducklings.
Authors:A. Szabó, M. Mézes, P. Horn, Z. Sütő, Gy. Bázár, and R. Romvári
Blood serum clinical biochemical parameters of fasted BUT Big 8 male turkeys were determined at the ages of 3 days, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks, for a follow-up of the developmental changes of some serum metabolites, enzymes and ions. The serum protein content (total protein, albumin, globulin) increased with age, indicating also the moulting-associated metabolic changes in the age interval from the 8th to the 12th weeks. Creatinine was shown to have a peak at 3 days of age (role of muscle activity in thermogenesis), while urate concentration sensitively reflected the dietary protein amount. Serum triglycerides peaked at the time of yolk catabolism, while cholesterol was shown to indicate the moulting, as was serum malondialdehyde. Serum sodium content increased throughout the study. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased along the ontogeny, while alkaline phosphatase activity decreased in parallel with the growth. Serum creatine kinase activity showed an over one-magnitude increase. General metabolic and enzymatic alterations were characteristic and applicable for the description of the ontogenetic development of a precocial (post-hatch triglyceride peak), large bodied, meat-type (lactate dehydrogenase, continuously increasing creatine kinase) bird species.
Authors:A.K. Tyka, M. Chwastowski, T. Cison, T. Palka, A. Tyka, Z. Szygula, W. Pilch, M. Strzala, and M. Cepero
The aim of the study was to determine whether creatine malate (CML) supplementation results in similar ergogenic effect in sprinters and long-distance runners. The other goal was to compare changes in body composition, physical performance and hormone levels after six-week training in athletes, divided into subgroups supplemented with creatine malate or taking placebo.
Six-week supplementation combined with physical training induced different effects in athletes. Significantly higher increases in relative and absolute peak power and total work (p < 0.05) were found in sprinters compared to other groups. Except for growth hormone, post-exercise venous blood serum hormone levels exhibited no statistically significant differences in athletes. After CML loading period, a significant increase in growth hormone was found in the group of sprinters.
A significant ergogenic effect was found in sprinters, which was reflected by the increase in anaerobic exercise indices and morphological indices and elevated growth hormone level, after graded exercise testing. The significant increase in the distance covered during graded test was only observed in supplemented long-distance runners, whereas no significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake, relative peak power and relative total work were noticed. This could be caused by later anaerobic threshold appearance in exercise test to exhaustion.
Authors:J Amri, M Parastesh, M Sadegh, SA Latifi, and M Alaee
Background and aims
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of 10 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and endurance training (END) on irisin, betatrophin, insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentrations, and lipid profiles in diabetic rats.
Twenty-four Wistar rats (weight: 200–250 g) were randomly assigned into four groups as follows: (1) control (Cnt), (2) diabetic (Dibt), (3) diabetic HIIT (Dibt-HIIT), and (4) diabetic END (Dibt-END). For inducing diabetes, after 12 h of food starvation, nicotinamide (120 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally injected. The diabetic training groups received 10 weeks of HIIT or END training following the induction of diabetes. Twenty-four hours following the last training session, blood serum samples were collected for evaluating the concentration of irisin, betatrophin, and insulin hormones through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
FBG and lipid profiles were measured by biochemical kits. A significant increase in the serum concentration of irisin (p < 0.05), betatrophin (p < 0.05), and insulin (p < 0.001) and significant decrease in the FBG (P < 0.01) and lipid profiles (p < 0.01) were observed in the Dibt-HIIT group compared to the Dibt-END group. In addition, irisin revealed a significant positive association with betatrophin and insulin values in diabetic training groups (p < 0.01).
It seems that HIIT leads to a more extensive improvement in diabetic conditions compared to the END training. Therefore, HIIT appears to be an important time-efficient approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Authors:Ireneusz Balicki and Aleksandra Sobczyńska-Rak
The objective of this study was to measure the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in dogs diagnosed with chronic superficial keratitis (CSK). The study was performed on 25 German shepherds (14 males and 11 females, aged between 3 and 11 years). The VEGF levels were determined in blood serum using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Quantikine Canine VEGF Immunoassay, R&D Systems). The test group of affected German shepherds was subdivided into two subgroups, based on the area of corneal neovascularisation. The first subgroup (9 patients) comprised dogs with neovascularisation observed in 1 to 2 quadrants of the right and left cornea, while the second subgroup (16 patients) comprised dogs with neovascularisation observed in 3 to 4 quadrants of the right and left cornea. The control group comprised 12 clinically healthy German shepherds (7 males and 5 females, aged between 3 and 9 years). The results were then statistically analysed by the Mann-Whitney test. The study indicated that the median serum VEGF concentration in healthy dogs was 14.9 pg/mL. The VEGF level observed in sick German shepherds was elevated (19.5 pg/mL) as compared to the values found in healthy dogs; however, a statistically significant increase in VEGF concentration, as compared to the values observed in healthy dogs, was only noted in the first subgroup, where the median VEGF concentration was 22.0 pg/mL. Elevated serum VEGF concentration was observed in German shepherds diagnosed with CSK. A statistically significant increase in VEGF levels was observed in dogs in the first stage of the disease, i.e. the early stage of neovascularisation.
Authors:Tibor Gaál, L. Wágner, F. Husvéth, H. A. Manilla, P. Vajdovich, N. Balogh, I. Lóth, and Katalin Németh S.
The influence of fish oil (highly unsaturated) and beef tallow (highly saturated) with vitamin E (100 IU/kg) supplementation on the antioxidant status of broiler chicken cockerels was investigated. Chicks were fed a control diet with no added fat, 40 g/kg each of fish oil and beef tallow diets, respectively, from 11 to 42 days of age. Tocopherol concentration and the rate of lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver, fatty acid composition of the liver lipids, blood serum total antioxidant status (TAS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were determined. Vitamin E supplementation of the diet increased liver ?-tocopherol content in chicks regardless of the type of dietary fat. Fish oil diet resulted in higher liver TBARS value while beef tallow diet showed lower values compared to the control diet. Vitamin E supplementation reduced liver TBARS as well as serum GSH, and raised serum TAS for all diets. Serum GSH was the same for vitamin E supplemented diets regardless of the fat supplement. Fish oil diets resulted in a significant increase in hepatic lipid n-3 PUFA content. A significant positive correlation was found between liver TBARS and n-3 PUFA content. No relationships were established, however, between liver TBARS and n-6 PUFA or saturated fatty acids. The results suggest that feeding oils rich in n-3 PUFA increases tissue concentration of these fatty acids, consequently increasing tissue lipid peroxidation and reducing the antioxidative status of broiler chickens. Supplementing high levels of vitamin E with such oils may increase tissue oxidative stability. Serum TAS or GSH may be used as a measure of antioxidative status in chickens.
Authors:Bundit Yuangsoi, Orapint Jintasataporn, Prathak Tabthipwon, and Chris Kamel
The carotenoid composition of tea, mulberry, and cassava leaf has been determined by TLC on silica gel 60 with 75:15:10 (
) petroleum ether-diethyl ether-acetone as mobile phase. Spectrodensitometric detection was performed at 450 nm. The results showed lutein and β-carotene were the main carotenoids in all the leaves. Tannin was found in tea leaves at a level of 4.60 ± 0.07 g kg
. The amount of cyanide in cassava leaf was equivalent to 918.31 ± 11.37 mg hydrocyanic acid kg
. A pharmacokinetic study of total carotenoids was designed with three experimental fancy carp diets based on tea, mulberry, and cassava leaves as raw materials. The results showed that the maximum concentrations of serum total carotenoids in fish fed with tea, mulberry, and cassava leaves were 0.0022, 0.0016, and 0.0018 μg mL
48, 72, and 48 h after feeding, respectively (
). The volumes of distribution were 23.40, 22.28, and 23.39 mL kg
, total body clearance was 0.24, 0.30, and 0.41 mL h
, and the area under the concentration-time curve was 108.23, 79.74, and 60.58 μg h mL
, respectively. It is concluded that when fish were fed a tea leaf diet carotenoids were absorbed more readily than from other diets. Similar serum astaxanthin levels were observed for fancy carp on all diets 48 h after feeding, and astaxanthin concentration in blood serum continued to increase with time. These studies indicated that irrespective of the lutein and β-carotene content of the three plant leaves in the diet, the fancy carp can convert them to astaxanthin in serum.
Authors:T. Kośla, M. Skibniewski, E. Skibniewska, and G. Urbańska-Słomka
. Diss. Dr.habil., Fac. Med. Vet., Univ. Leipzig.
Koşala, T. (1992): The contens of macro- and microelements in the fodder, bloodserum and hair of European bison. Part II. Iron, copper and zinc. Ann. Warsaw
Authors:Diana Žele, Silvestra Kobal, Gorazd Vengušt, Andrej Bidovec, Anton Vengušt, and Gabrijela Tavčar-Kalcher
): Depletion rates of injected and ingested ivermectin from bloodserum of penned white-tailed deer,
(Zimmermann) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae). J. Med. Entomol.
Oehler D. D