Letters to the editor published in theLancet during the first half of 1980 were less cited than the corresponding papers. The average number of citations per letter was larger if the letter contained some substantive information. The longer the letter the more frequently it was cited. Letters that react to some previous publication tend to be shorter than spontaneous letters. Reacting letters tend to be less cited than spontaneous letters if they are short, more cited if they are longer. Letters with substantive information tend to originate outside the UK in which case they are also more cited.
This paper investigates the extent to which staff editors’ evaluations of submitted manuscripts—that is, internal evaluations
carried out before external peer reviewing—are valid. To answer this question we utilized data on the manuscript reviewing
process at the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition. The results of this study indicate that the initial internal evaluations are valid. Further, it appears that external review
is indispensable for the decision on the publication worthiness of manuscripts: (1) For the majority of submitted manuscripts,
staff editors are uncertain about publication worthiness; (2) there is a statistically significant proportional difference
in “Rejection” between the editors' initial evaluation and the final editorial decision (after peer review); (3) three-quarters
of the manuscripts that were rated negatively at the initial internal evaluation but accepted for publication after the peer
review had far above-average citation counts.
During speaking, the mental lexicon is accessed (i) to select the necessary words, and (ii) to retrieve their phonological and syntactic patterns. However, the nature of real-time activation of words and phonological rules is largely unknown. In Hungarian, voicing assimilation is a relatively strong phonological process prevailing both within and across words. While a lot is known about its phonological nature as well as its phonetic outcome, the temporal patterns of its implementation during speech production have not been analyzed yet. This paper deals with the temporal coding of voicing assimilation (i) in language acquisition, (ii) in spontaneous speech (of subjects of various ages), and (iii) in repetition tasks. Results show that (i) by the age of 4 Hungarian-speaking children acquire this phonological rule without mistakes, (ii) in spontaneous speech successful voicing assimilation depends on certain time limits partly depending also on the total temporal organization of speech coding, and (iii) without the higher-level semantic and syntactic organization of speech (shadowing task), subjects are not able to plan the encoding of voicing assimilation processes as securely as they do in spontaneous speech.