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Scientometrics
Authors:
M. Bonitz
,
E. Bruckner
, and
Andrea Scharnhorst

Abstract  

A new indicator, Science Strategy Index, is proposed, which is based on the scattering of a country's science activity over all science fields and related to the world distribution of the science fields. The indicator allows to compare the structure of the publication output of countries as reflected by the used database, irrespective of the size of the countries.If the science structure of each country is related for comparison to that one of each other country, the indicator converts into a structure measure which enables to cluster countries according to their structural similarity. The cluster map of countries achieved in this way deserves intense discussion upon the different science strategies of countries and their geographic, political, communicative, and socio-cultural background.

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Abstract  

The status of physics research in India and China has been examined by using bibliometric indicators. The study is based on publication data drawn fromINSPEC-Physics for 1990 and 1995. China is ahead of India in terms of publication output. It ranks 7th in the world, whereas India is placed at 10th position. China is also ahead of India in terms of growth in its publications appearing particularly in the SCI (Science Citation Index) indexed journals. Despite its second position in publication count, India leads China in terms of average impact per paper computed using data on impact factor of the citing journals. It maintains this leading position both in 1990 and 1995. In addition, the study suggests a strategy for identifying leading areas of research in physics.

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Abstract  

The objective of the study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of all pentachlorophenolrelated publications in the Science Citation Index (SCI). Analyzed parameters included document type, language of publication, page count, publication output, authorship, keywords plus, publication pattern, citation and country of publication. The US produced 29% of the total single country publications where the seven major industrial countries accounted for the majority of the total production (66%). An indicator citation per publication was successfully applied in this study to evaluate the impact of number of authors, countries, and journals. The mean value of citation per publication of collaborative papers was higher than that of single country publications. In addition analysis of keywords plus in different period was applied to indicate a research trend.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Ed Rinia
,
Thed van Leeuwen
,
Eppo Bruins
,
Hendrik van Vuren
, and
Anthony van Raan

Abstract  

In this paper we report on the results of an exploratory study of knowledge exchange between disciplines and subfields of science, based on bibliometric methods. The goal of this analysis is twofold. Firstly, we consider knowledge exchange between disciplines at a global level, by analysing cross-disciplinary citations in journal articles, based on the world publication output in 1999. Among others a central position of the Basic Life Sciences within the Life Sciences and of Physics within the Exact Sciences is shown. Limitations of analyses of interdisciplinary impact at the journal level are discussed. A second topic is a discussion of measures which may be used to quantify the rate of knowledge transfer between fields and the importance of work in a given field or for other disciplines. Two measures are applied, which appear to be proper indicators of impact of research on other fields. These indicators of interdisciplinary impact may be applied at other institutional levels as well.

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Abstract  

A bibliometric analysis was performed to assess the quantitative trend of published pentachlorophenol (PCP) remediation studies, including both degradation and sorption. The documents studies were retrieved from the Science Citation Index (SCI) for the period from 1994 to 2005. The trends were analyzed with the retrieved results in publication language, document type, page count, publication output, publication pattern, authorship, citation analysis and country of publication. The results indicated that degradation was the emphasis for PCP remediation. The average impact factor of the journals was higher for publishing degradation studies in comparison to that publishing sorption studies. And there was a positive correlation between CPP and IF for journals published more than two papers. The publishing countries of both degradation and sorption denoted that most of these researches were done by USA and Canada. Two to four authors was the most popular level of co-authorship.

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Abstract  

Frequency distributions of scientific productivity are usually based on cross section cuts of the investigated population of scientists. Therefore, some of the registered scientists are involved for the whole period of time, but there are many fractional authors, too. If one compares only scientists active in a specialty for the same length of time, the typical bibliometric skewness of the distribution vanishes. But also the duration of participation of a cohort of scientists which began their career in the same year is not distributed in a Lotkean manner. Furthermore, the speed of publication-which might be a better statistical indicator of scientific capacities than publication output as such—has more similarity to a normal distribution than to a lognormal one.

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Summary  

An analysis of 16891 publications published by Indian scientists during 1993-2002 and indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science) indicates that the publication output in the agricultural sciences is on the decline since 1998 onwards.  'Dairy and animal sciences' followed by 'veterinary sciences' constitute the largest component of the Indian agricultural research output. Agricultural universities and institutes under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) are the major producers of research output. Most of the papers have been published in domestic journals and in low normalized impact factor journals with a low rate of citation per paper. Most of the highly productive institutions are either agricultural universities or the institutes under the aegis of ICAR. Most of the prolific authors are from the highly productive institutions. However, only a few highly cited authors are from highly productive institutions. 

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Abstract  

The Swedish innovation system is analysed in terms of the interaction between academia, government and the private sector. For each of 21 Swedish regions we analyse the distribution of research activities, doctoral employment, and publication output, as well as the flow of doctoral graduates and the distribution of co-authorship links across regions and sectors. The three main urban regions have about 75 percent of all R&D activities and outputs. They also have a more balanced supply of academic, governmental and private research activities than the smaller regions, and the interactions among sectors within these regions are more intense. The inter-regional flow of PhDs is also to the advantage of the big regions. So far, decentralization of the academic sector does not seem to have had as similar decentralizing effect on private R&D. Unless this imbalance changes, smaller regions will continue to be net exporters of skill and knowledge to the big regions.

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Summary  

To compare science growth of different countries is both, of theoretical and of pragmatic interest. Using methods for the analysis of complex growth processes introduced by H. E. Stanley and others, we exhibit quantitative features of Chinese science growth from 1986 to 1999 and compare them with corresponding features of western countries. Patterns of growth dynamics of Chinese universities publication output do not differ significantly from those found in the case of western countries. The same is valid for Chinese journals when compared to international journals. In nearly all cases the size distribution of output over universities or journals is near to a lognormal one, the growth rate distribution is Laplace-like, and the standard deviations of the corresponding conditional distributions with regard to size decay according to a power law. This means that regarding some structural-dynamical properties China's recent science system cannot be distinguished from a western one - despite different prehistory and different political and economic environment.

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Abstract  

This article reports the findings of a scientometric analysis of nanoscale research in South Africa during the period 2000–2005. The ISI databases were identified as the most appropriate information platform for the objectives of the investigation and have been interrogated for the identification of South African authors publishing in the field. The article identifies trends over time, major institutional contributors, journals in which South African authors publish their research, international collaborators and performance in comparison to four comparator countries (India, Brazil, South Korea and Australia). The major findings of the investigation are as follows: nanoscale research in South Africa is driven by individual researchers interests up to date and it is in its early stages of development; the country’s nanoscale research is below what would one expect in light of its overall publication output; the country’s nano-research is distributed to a number of Universities with subcritical concentration of researchers.

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