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Abstract  

An instrumental method for sedimentation rate determination, using 210Pb natural radioactivity and the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model, is presented for the Santander Bay, Spain. Two sampling points were analyzed, one is affected industrially, and at the other, the industrial impact has been minimal. The results indicate a growth of the sedimentation rate in the two points studied, in the first point from 0.06 cm·y–1 to 0.35 cm·y–1, approximately from the beginning of the 20th century until the present time.The interrelation between the periods of maximum industrialization and the maximum variations in the sedimentation rate was investigated.

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Abstract  

We investigated the integration into the international scientific literature of articles published by researchers at the University of Granada (Spain) between 1976 and 1987, in journals published outside of Spain. The Science Citation Index was used to measure integration, and the articles were classified for comparison into eight fields (clinical medicine, experimental medicine, geology, chemistry, physics, biology, pharmaceutical science and mathematics). The minimum criterion for integration was considered fulfilled when the size of the two communities of citing authors considered (Spanish and non-Spanish) was equal, i.e., when the absolute number of citations in both communities was equal. On the basis of this criterion, articles in clinical medicine and experimental medicine were found to be integrated into the international literature. The regression lines for the number of citations per year in each field in the two communities of citing authors were parallel, indicating that integration of Spanish publications in these two fields was stationary. Of the fields found not to be integrated, the lines for pharmaceutical science citations in the two communities indicated little sign of future change in the proportion of Spanish to non-Spanish citations. Citations in the remaining five fields indicated a steady decrease in integration. We introduce the concept of the drag effect of national citations on citation indices in the international literature: a sharp increase in the number of Spanish articles published in non-Spanish journals may exceed the capacity of the international community to absorb, understand and cite these new publications.

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Abstract  

The aim of this work was to provide a rational frame for the design of scientific policies in MR infrastructure implementation. To this end, we have investigated the relationships between MR instruments, their scientific productivity or medical performance and several socio-economic, R&D or health care indicators in a Spanish and European context. The distribution of MR spectroscopy instruments among Spanish Autonomous Communities suggests that the allocation policy resulted from a compromise between the pull of demand based on regional strength in R&D activities and the push of convergence criteria to bring underdeveloped regions up to a national standard. On the whole, the average value for Spanish MR spectroscopy equipment (1.6 units per TRDP) was within the average value of 1.7 found in 6 European countries. The scientific productivity of these spectrometres in Spain (10.3 publications per unit), compares with the ratio (12.4) found in the United Kingdom and was above the six countries' average (8.3). Larger differences in productivity were observed between Spanish Autonomous Communities, suggesting the existence of important laguna in the distributive side of the allocation policy. Consistent with its socio-sanitary importance, the regional distribution of MR imaging equipment in Spain correlated with the number of sanitary personnel and regional population or wealth. The average number of installed units per million inhabitants in Spain (3.3) is very close to the average found in five European countries and the diagnostic procedures per installed units are close to the 5 countries' average values of 3400/year. However, the scientific productivity of MR imaging equipment in Spain (1.6 publications per installed unit in the five year period) was very low as compared with other European countries (3.7 on average). Higher diagnostic demand or lower publication pressures could explain these differences equally well. Our results suggest that increases in scientific productivity and medical performance of MR instrumentation in Spanish Autonomous Communities may not necessarily involve a net increase in the number of MR instruments but rather, improvements in the global socio-economic throughputs derived from the organisation of R&D and medical service policies.

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Abstract  

The output in life science disciplines from Spain and five other European countries has been measured in a datafile derived from theCurrent Contents-Life Sciences on diskette (1989). The results of this flash evaluation were contrasted with data retrieved from a survey covering the yearly output during the 1973–83 period and thee 1981–85 aggregated value from Schubert, Glänzel, Braun datafiles. The results of these studies showed an increasing share of Spain in the six countries' output, especially in the subfields of organic chemistry and phytochemistry. However, the quality of the Spanish articles—as deduced from the journal impact factors (JRC-1989)—is below the six countries average. The usefulness of the Current Contents on diskette for handy and reliable flash evaluations has been ascertained through a comparative analysis with more comprehensive surveys.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Concepción Ortega
,
L. Plaza
,
M. Martin
, and
M. Urdin

Abstract  

This article analyses the current situation in the field of scientific and technical journals published in Spain, by determining the following scientific indicators for each: I: Specifications. II: Scientific production covered. III: Visibility and accessibility. The first section provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the journals, asking what subjects they cover, who publishes them, how often they are published, how up to data they are and whether the way they are presented meets international publishing standards. The second section analyses scientific production by research sectors and the percentage of articles collected in the ICYT database compared with the total number of papers published in the journals studied. It also studies the reference habits of the authors published therein to identify whether the literature referred to is of local origin or international. Finally, the third section deduces these journals' degree of visibility by analysing how they are distributed amongst the usual media, i.e. international periodicals directories and databases, and how efficiently they work as vehicles for the diffusion of research by foreign authors. The study covers 10 years (1980–1989), thus enabling to recognise past and current trends in Spanish scientific literature.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Francesco Del Prete
,
Trevor Steward
,
Juan F. Navas
,
Fernando Fernández-Aranda
,
Susana Jiménez-Murcia
,
Tian P. S. Oei
, and
José C. Perales

, for example, problem gambling rates have been found to range from 0.3% to 3.1% ( Planzer, Gray, & Shaffer, 2014 ). In Spain specifically, epidemiological research points to high rates of gambling behavior and specific culturally bound types of gambling

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The present study reports on the location of major foci of footrot in goats in the Extremadura region of Spain by the determination of locally occurring strictly anaerobic microorganisms involved in the pathogenesis and development of this disease. The most commonly isolated microorganisms belonged to the genera Dichelobacter, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas and Prevotella; these were found in conjunction with other species of minor importance. The species most frequently isolated were Fusobacterium necrophorum (40%), Dichelobacter nodosus (31.7%), Porphyromonas asaccharolytica (21.1%) and Prevotella melaninogenica (12.9%). Virulence factors identified in the isolated microorganisms included haemolysins, elastases and lecithinases, which enabled the organisms involved to initiate and/or aggravate the disease. Serotyping was performed for Dichelobacter nodosus isolates, since this species is responsible for triggering the process of infection. A and C were the most frequently isolated serovarieties (representing 40.7% and 25.9% of the cases, respectively).

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Abstract  

This paper analyzes the scientific relationships between Spain and the Eastern European countries (EEc), including the former USSR, from 1982 to 1992. The study considers the number of co-authored papers as well as the number of stays which reflect to the exchange of scientists among them. The total number of co-authored papers of Spanish scientists with their colleagues of those countries is 664 as recorded in theScience Citation Index. During the last three years, a significative increase in the number of co-signed papers has been observed. From the sample considered, the percentage of bilateral and multilateral co-authored papers is 43.8 and 56.2 respectively. In absolute figures, USSR and Poland are the countries with highest number of collaborative papers with Spain. However, in relation to their scientific output, Poland and Hungary show a higher percentage of co-authored papers than the rest of EEc. On the other hand, previous data, provided by the Spanish Secretary of State for Research and Universities (SEUI), related to the flow of scientists on sabbatical year to and from Spain,1 showed that from 1984 to 1994, a total of 213 researches come from the EEc to Spain, while the number of Spanish scientists going to those countries was extremely scarce.

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Summary  

This study presents a general view of the scientific and technological production in the ICT sector in Spain during the period 1990-2002 and its relative weight in the international production, as well as the identification of the main institutional actors and the performance patterns of the researchers in this scientific community through bibliometric techniques, with the aim of exploring the character of its outputs, both in terms of publications and patents. Indicators at macro-meso level are presented by: geographic regions, thematic areas at different aggregation levels, institutional sectors and research centres. Bibliometric indicators may help focus attention on the position and contribution of Spanish ICT science and technological capabilities.

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Abstract  

The assessment of the research performance of the Spanish Scientific Research Council using scientometric indicators was done. Number of scientists and budget involved in research projects were used as input measures while articles published in foreign journals, patent applications and citations received provided output figures. The time period studied was 1984–1987. Target of the analysis were wide research areas and the research Institutes included in them. The obtained results point out that very often costs, productivity and impact do not go in the same direction. Most likely, other activities no measurable by scientometric indicators may have played an important role in some Institutes. Besides, the presence of highly cited articles at Institutes with low productivity scores indicates not correspondence of quantity with impact. It is suggested that the research group level would be a more reliable unit for analysis than the aggregated level of Institute or research area.

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