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Abstract  

The intake and tissue distribution of thorium (2 3 2Th) was studied in an urban (Bombay) population in India. From the analysis of 16 whole diet samples, the average daily intake through food was found to be 2 g (range 0.8–4.3 g·d–1). The estimated intake through drinking water and inhalation comes out to be 0.03 and 0.02 g per day. From the analysis of human autopsy tissue samples it is observed that the concentration ranges in lungs and bone are 1.5–16 g/kg and 0.2–9.0 g/kg fresh weight respectively. The average urinary concentration is 12 ng/1 (range 7–22 ng/l for 10 samples). Among the different body tissues, pulmonary lymph nodes were found to contain the highest concentration (geometric mean 53.4 g/kg, range 31.4–85.5 g/kg for 6 samples). Analysis of the samples was done by the neutron activation technique. 311.8 keV gamma photons of2 3 3Pa which is the activation product of2 3 2Th, were counted after chemical separation. A 54 cm3 intrinsic Ge detector coupled to 1024-channel analyser was used. Using the average lung content and the daily average intake values of thorium through inhalation, the clearance half-time from lung was estimated.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
D. Šoronja Simović
,
N. Filipović
,
Z. Šereš
,
J. Gyura
,
A. Jokić
, and
B. Pajin

Research on the effects of additives produced from sugar beet is aimed at satisfying the daily intake of dietary fibre in the range of 25–35 g. Bakery products are usually consumed several times a day and this offers the possibility of incorporating dietary fibres from sugar beet. The addition of this additive to white flour can eliminate the negative effect of phytic acid, present in whole-grain cereal products, which inhibits the mineral intake. In the aim to decrease and eliminate adverse effects of sugar beet fibres on dough rheology and bread quality, optimal quantities of shortening and milk powder to the recipes were tested in order to counter addition of balance such effects. The influence of shortening and milk powder on characteristics of dough enriched with fibres (proving time and dough level) and parameters of bread quality (volume and crumb quality) was traced in two groups of samples: first without and second with 5% of added gluten. Applying regression analysis on measured parameters a mathematical model was defined. Based on presented data and regression analysis concerning samples with and without gluten, it can be stated that fibres enriched bread of the best quality can be made with gluten, shortening and milk powder at the level of 5%, 5% and 2%, respectively.

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The mineral composition of mercantile wheat samples and sunflower seed cultivars collected from all Serbian growing regions was determined by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean element contents of wheat and sunflower seed samples (in mg kg −1 on a dry weight basis) were: 8127.5 and 5038.6 for K, 258.6 and 221.7 for Na, 1022.5 and 147.4 for Mg, 1457.2 and 432.3 for Ca, 56.5 and 35.2 for Fe, 33.9 and 15.2 for Mn, 4.1 and 19.5 for Cu, 23.8 and 64.2 for Zn (in μg kg −1 on a dry weight basis), 5.6 and 0.2 for Hg, 28.8 and 574.5 for Cd, 136.9 and 711.1 for Pb, 55.4 and 346.6 for As, respectively. The calculated mean and median levels of elements in the samples were compared with the regulated maximum levels according to the European Commission and the national legislation. On the basis of the obtained data, intakes of macro-, micro-and toxic elements by consuming white, wholegrain and speciality breads with sunflower seeds were calculated and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) values and Allowed Daily Intakes (ADI) for contaminants.

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This study aims to evaluate dairy desserts with (11 g kg −1 ) and without dietary fibres by instrumental measurements of texture and colour and sensory analysis. To maintain a similar texture to that of commercial desserts without fibres, the composition of thickening (corn starch, xanthan and guar gums) and gelling (carrageenan) agents in the basic formulation was also studied. Dietary fibres of bamboo, inulin, wheat, apple, Psyllium and chitosan were tested. Sensory characteristics were evaluated by a non-trained panel. Appearance, flavour, texture and preference were scored using an unstructured line scale. Texture and surface colour were analysed by a Texture Analyser-xT2i and a tristimulus colourimeter (Minolta CR 300). Sensory attributes showed significant differences among treatments. The dessert with chitosan gave the lowest sensory scores. For stress at rupture, the dessert with Psyllium fibre showed the highest value, while the one with chitosan gave the lowest. Apple fibre led to a brownish colour. Panellists preferred inulin or bamboo desserts. Addition of inulin or bamboo fibres to dairy desserts is a good alternative to increase the daily intake of dietary fibres.

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Solidago canadensis L., (Asteraceae) has been used in European phytotherapy as a urological and antiphlogistical remedy for centuries. The behaviour of dissolution of mineral elements into different tinctures and aqueous extracts obtained from Solidaginis herba was investigated in connection with their quercetin glycoside and organic acid amount. Commonly applied aqueous and alcoholic extracts were analysed for Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, S, Ti, V and Zn content. The concentrations of the minerals examined were determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Determination of the flavonoids in solidaginis herba and extracts was carried out by a spectrophotometric method, as required by the German Pharmacopoea. For the study of the flavonoid composition of crude drug, the HPLC technique was applied. To determine the relative nutrient contribution of these pharmaceuticals to the diet, data obtained were combined with flavonoid content particulars, then a comparison with U.S Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) was made. For evaluation of the phytotherapeutic relevance, k/Na ratio was also calculated. It has been found that the pharmaceuticals examined are important sources of potassium, chromium, manganese, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and lower sources of iron and zinc, assuming a daily intake of 1-2 l aqueous extracts as recommended for urological diseases. Flavonoid content of the different Solidaginis herba extracts ranged from 62.4 mg l-1 to 305.2 mg l-1.

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The content of the potentially health-defensive and disease-preventive flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin and luteolin of 31 vegetables were determined by RP- HPLC with UV detection. Vegetables were purchased at the local markets in Budapest at a period of their most frequent consumption. Quercetin levels in the edible parts of most vegetables were generally below 10 mg kg &1, except for onions (67&121.5 mg kg &1), lettuce (13.5&35.0 mg kg &1), dill (74.5 mg kg &1), broccoli (15.5 mg kg &1) and spinach (272.2 mg kg &1). Kaempferol was below 30 mg kg &1 except for parsnip (66.4 mg kg &1) and leek (45.8 mg kg &1). Myricetin could only be detected in lettuce, Swedish turnip, parsley and celery leaves, and dill. Detectable amount of luteolin was in radishes, some representatives of Brassica, sweet peppers, celery leaves and spinach while apigenin was only in Swedish turnip, celery root and celery leaves. These data provide a basis for the evaluation of the average daily intake of Hungarian population and for an epidemiological evaluation of health-promoting effects of flavonoids.

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The content of potentially antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antiallergic flavonoid aglycons, quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin and luteolin of 45 fruits were determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Fresh and dried fruits were purchased in the local markets in Budapest at a period of their most frequent consumption. Total flavonoid content of fruits varied between 0–1000 mg kg –1, the average concentration was about 30 mg kg –1 fresh weight. Quercetin could be detected in most fruits, namely in apples, pear, plums, sweet and sour cherry and berries between 10–53 mg kg –1. Luteolin at a concentration of 20 mg kg –1 was found in melons, apples, kiwi and lemon. Myricetin was in detectable amount in redcurrant, and at very high concentration in some berry fruits (mulberry 453 mg kg –1, raspberry 540 mg kg –1, blackberry 636 mg kg –1, strawberry 994 mg kg –1), and in walnut (4565 mg kg –1). Kaempferol and apigenin were not found in the fruits investigated. None of the five flavonoids was found in some variety of grapes, in peach, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit and tangerine, in nuts such as almond, pistachio, nuts, and in dried fruits such as raisin, date, fig and prunes. These data provide a basis for the evaluation of the average daily intake of Hungarian population and for an epidemiological evaluation of health-promoting effects of flavonoids. __

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Anna Visy
,
Karina Ilona Hidas
,
József Surányi
,
Gábor Jónás
, and
László Friedrich

Abstract

Excessive consumption of salt causes many diseases, including high blood pressure and cardiovascular system disease. In most countries, salt intake is above the WHO guideline daily intake. In Hungary, the average salt intake is more than double the recommended value. Based on these, significant changes are needed in food technology and recipes. To avoid excessive salt intake Hungary has joined the European Union's community program for salt reduction.

The aim of this study was to compare the salt content in different areas of Mangalitsa ham during the dry salting, and compare the average salt content with the regulations of the Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus. The ham was dry salted with 10% by weight of the meat and placed in a controlled atmosphere storage room. The curing took 21 days. The NaCl uptake was measured with Mohr method. The ham was cut at 3 points Cushion (C), Fore Cushion (FC) and Butt End (BE). The salt content of BE was generally higher than the other two areas (C, FC). The differences can be explained by the difference in the thickness of the pieces of meat and fat. The average salt content of the different areas did not exceed the threshold limit in the Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus. At the beginning of the experiment, the salt content of each meat layer was very different, the absorbed salt was concentrated in the surface layer. Over time, as the ham lost a lot of water and due to the lack of outer salt, a significant increase in salt content began in the meat centrum. By day 80, the salt content of the meat centrum exceeded the salt content of both the fat and the surface layer.

Open access

Negyven év az orvoslásban.

Magyar orvosok egészségi állapota és egyéb jellemzői 40 évvel a diplomaszerzés után

Working 40 years as medical doctors.

Health status and some other characteristics of Hungarian medical doctors 40 years after graduation
Orvosi Hetilap
Author:
Imre Rurik

Az egészségügyi dolgozók, így az orvosok egészségi állapota fontos kutatásterület az egészségügyben, kevésbé hazánkban és a kelet-közép-európai országokban. A Budapesten 1979-ben végzett orvosok egészségi állapotát, morbiditását, antropometriai adatait, életmódját, szakmai pályafutását próbáltuk meg felmérni kohorszjellegű vizsgálatban 25, 30 és 40 évvel a diplomázást követően, különbséget keresve nemek és szakmacsoportok között. A 2019-ben elvégzett felméréskor a résztvevők átlagéletkora 64,9 év, átlagos gyermekszámuk 2,08, míg a manuális szakmákban dolgozók esetében magasabb (2,43) volt, a férfi orvosoknak volt több gyermekük. A pályafutásuk alatt teljesített ügyeletek száma az életkorral csökkent. Legnagyobb részük 2019-ben már nyugdíjas volt, 70%-uk nyugdíj mellett is dolgozott. A megkérdezettek 27%-a volt szakmaváltó, 36% nem arra a szakterületre készült, mint ahol befejezte pályafutását. Kb. 10% szerzett tudományos fokozatot, nagy részük elégedett volt szakmai pályafutásával. Az orvosok testsúlyának és testtömegindexének életkori emelkedésében nem volt statisztikai különbség a nemek és a szakmacsoportok között. Az általuk megadott adatok szerint diabetesben 7%, hypertoniában 44% szenvedett. A rendszeres szűrővizsgálatok elhanyagolása gyakoribb volt a férfiaknál. Azonos korosztályú betegeivel összehasonlítva 71% ítélte jobbnak saját egészségi állapotát. A sportolást említők körében a férfiak nagyobb arányban voltak; a sportolásra fordított idő átlagos mennyisége az évtizedek alatt nem változott, viszont a sportolók száma és a csapatsportokban részt vevők aránya jelentősen csökkent. Alvásuk jellemzően nyugodt, munkanapok között 6,3, hétvégente 7,7 óra terjedelmű volt. Kiégést nem említettek. A dohányzók aránya jelentősen lecsökkent, az elfogyasztott napi alkoholmennyiséget átlagosan 1,3, a hetit 3,7 egységnek adták meg. A korábbi vizsgálatokban talált különbségek 2019-re a szakmacsoportok között elmosódtak. A magyar egészségügy problémáit hasonlóan értékelik, bár jövedelmük az utóbbi években jelentősen emelkedett. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(29): 1127–1133.

Open access

Magyarországi konszenzusajánlás a D-vitamin szerepéről a betegségek megelőzésében és kezelésében

Hungarian consensus recommendation on the role of vitamin D in disease prevention and treatment

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
István Takács
,
Magdolna Dank
,
Judit Majnik
,
György Nagy
,
András Szabó
,
Boglárka Szabó
,
Zoltán Szekanecz
,
István Sziller
,
Erzsébet Toldy
,
András Tislér
,
Zsuzsanna Valkusz
,
Szabolcs Várbíró
,
Norbert Wikonkál
, and
Péter Lakatos

Összefoglaló. Kilenc magyarországi orvostársaság közös ajánlást alakított ki a D-vitamin javasolt normáltartományával, a D-vitamin-pótlás adagjával és az adagolás módjával kapcsolatban. Összefoglalták azokat a klinikai állapotokat, betegségeket, amelyek kialakulása összefüggésben lehet a D-vitamin-hiánnyal. Magyarországon a D-vitamin-hiány – főleg a tél végére – rendkívül gyakori. A javasolt normáltartomány alsó határa 75 nmol/l, annak ellenére, hogy a hiány klinikai jelentősége főleg 50 nmol/l alatti értékeknél nyilvánvaló, ám mivel a D-vitamin pótlása a javasolt dózisban biztonságos, mindenkinél érdemes csökkenteni a D-vitamin-hiánnyal kapcsolatos egészségügyi kockázatot. A D-vitamin-pótlás célja a hiány megszüntetése. A javasolt normáltartomány 75–125 nmol/l, az ezt meghaladó tartományban a D-vitamin adásának nincs további egyértelmű előnye. A normáltartomány fenntartásához felnőttekben napi 2000 NE bevitele javasolt az UV-B sugárzástól mentes időszakban. Gyermekeknek is javasolt a D-vitamin pótlása azokban az időszakokban és állapotokban, mint a felnőtteknek, de az adag korfüggő módon változik. D-vitamin-pótlásra D3-vitamin adása javasolt. Felnőttekben a D3-vitamin-pótlás napi, heti és havi gyakoriságú adagolással is egyformán hatásos és biztonságos. Súlyos hiányban javasolt telítő adagot alkalmazni, majd ezt követően fenntartó adagolással kell folytatni a pótlást. A D-vitamin-hiány jól ismert csontrendszeri, immunológiai és onkológiai hatásai mellett egyre több adat támasztja alá előnytelen nőgyógyászati és szülészeti hatásait is. A legerősebb érv a D-vitamin-hiány megszüntetése és a szükséges pótlás alkalmazása mellett a halálozási kockázat D-vitamin-hiányban észlelt növekedése. A konszenzus elkészítésének folyamata megfelelt a Delfi-irányelveknek. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(15): 575–584.

Summary. Nine Hungarian medical societies have developed a consensus recommendation on the preferred normal range of vitamin D, the dose of vitamin D supplementation and the method of administration. They summarized the clinical conditions and diseases the development of which may be associated with vitamin D deficiency (VDD). VDD is extremely common in Hungary, especially in late winter. The lower limit of the recommended normal range is 75 nmol/l, although the clinical significance of deficiency is evident mainly at values below 50 nmol/l, but since vitamin D supplementation at the recommended dose is safe, it is worthwhile for everyone to reduce the health risk associated with VDD. The aim of vitamin D supplementation is to prevent deficiency. The recommended normal range is 75–125 nmol/l, above which there is no clear benefit of vitamin D supplementation. To maintain the normal range, a daily intake of 2000 IU in adults is recommended during the UV-B radiation-free period. Vitamin D supplementation is also recommended for children during the same periods and conditions as for adults, but the dose varies with age. In adults, vitamin D3 supplementation at daily, weekly and monthly intervals is equally effective and safe. In severe deficiency, a loading dose is recommended, followed by maintenance supplementation. In addition to the well-known skeletal, immunological and oncological effects of VDD, more and more data support unfavorable gynecological and obstetric effects. The process of building the consensus has met the requirements of the latest Delphi criteria. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(15): 575–584.

Open access