Honey is the natural sweet substance produced by bees from the nectar or secretions of plants or from excretions of plant-sucking insects, which the bees collect, transform by combining with specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store, and leave in honeycombs to ripen and mature. The physical properties of honey make it versatile and applicable to several industries. High consumer demand for honey consequently leads to widespread adulteration. In the present study, fifteen honey samples were collected from various parts of Kerala, India and classified into three categories: market samples, raw/wild samples, and industrial samples. The samples were then analysed for the following parameters: organoleptic features, physicochemical properties, biochemical characteristics, and microbiological state. The values obtained for physicochemical and biochemical analysis were compared to Standard values provided by the Bureau of Indian Standards. It was found that no honey ideally conformed to all parameter standards. Some samples clearly indicated conditions of improper handling. All honey samples showed significant polyphenol content. Although honey samples showed increased microbial growth upon dilution, they were also found to have effective antimicrobial properties. Significant links between moisture content, yeast count, and non-conformity in honey were determined, which highlights the necessity of proper storage conditions.
The etheric oil components in garlic are proven to have numerous positive effects on human health, and powdered garlic has long been widely used in both the food industry and private households. In order to prolong the stability of etheric oil components, different combinations of packaging materials are used for the storage of powdered garlic. Since the quality of dehydrated powder depends on the packaging used, the investigation was aimed to determine the effects of packaging material types on etheric oil content in industrially powdered garlic over the storage period. Powdered samples were analysed immediately after production and during long periods of storage (after 30, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days). The investigations were focused on the correlation between packaging materials performances (light, water vapour and air permeability), and the changes of etheric oil and moisture content in powdered garlic. In order to describe the changes in etheric oil content during time, as well as to predict changes in packed powdered garlic, a statistical procedure was applied for all examined packaging materials and curve fitting data were estimated (the least square approach).
Three synthetic bread wheat genotypes and their parental cultivar Cham 6 were used to examine the effects of a strobilurin-class fungicide pyraclostrobin on leaf temperature, root water uptake and grain yield under increasing water deficit conditions. Wheat plants of Cham 6 treated with the pyraclostrobin at the booting stage showed a rapidly increased leaf temperature as compared with the gradually increased leaf temperature of the untreated plants. The final temperature reached, however, was lower for the pyraclostrobin treated plants than the untreated. Potted soil of the treated wheat plants also showed higher water contents than the untreated potted soil, suggesting delay of plant water uptake by pyraclostrobin treatment. A variation in water uptake by roots was also found between the four wheat genotypes examined. Daily water uptake was depressed after the pyraclostrobin treatment in all four wheat genotypes. Grain yields were slightly increased by the pyraclostrobin treatment in field trials under controlled water supply whereas no significant differences were detected in soil water content between treatments. The increase in grain yield by pyraclostrobin treatment might be dependent on the different water uptake of the wheat genotypes. These results suggest that foliage treatment of pyraclostrobin fungicide on wheat delays root water uptake, resulting in postponement of soil dehydration, which contributes to a slight increase of grain yield in some wheat genotypes in the field under water deficit conditions.
Blum, A., Mayer, J., Gozlan, G. (1982): Infrared thermal sensing of plant canopies as a screening technique for dehydration avoidance in wheat. Field Crops Res. , 5, 137-147.
Infrared thermal sensing of plant canopies as a
In rain-fed agricultural regions, limited rainfall and frequent unpredictable droughts have resulted in low and variable wheat yields. Balanced water use between root water-uptake and remaining soil moisture is a key factor for drought adaptation. Thirteen recombinant inbred lines selected from a backcross population of synthetic-derived bread wheat were examined for the association among root water-uptake ability, grain yield and root elongation under limited water conditions using pot and field experiments. The effect of wax coating on grain formation under soil desiccation was also studied in two selected genotypes. There were significant variations in both root water-uptake ability estimated in pot experiments and grain yield obtained in field experiments among wheat genotypes. Infrared thermography indicated that canopy temperature was related to the leaf transpiration due to root water-uptake. A significant negative correlation was found between root water-uptake ability and grain weight, suggesting that lower root water-uptake ability was associated with higher grain weight. Genotype SYN-10 had the lowest water-uptake ability and the highest grain weight, indicating a type of ‘water-saving wheat’. Wax coating significantly reduced root water-uptake in wheat genotypes SYN-8 and SYN-10. Infrared thermography showed an increased leaf temperature due to the transpiration-suppression effect of the wax coating. Reductions in grain yield due to soil desiccation were found in SYN-8, but not in SYN-10. The higher grain yield of SYN-10 was attributed to more grains under soil desiccation. Grain yield of SYN-10 was decreased by the wax coating under soil desiccation. Dehydration tolerance of SYN-10 might be associated with the transpiration process of the leaves.
) Dielectric properties of dehydrated apples as affected by moisture and temperature. Transaction of ASAE 45(1): 129-135.
Dielectric properties of dehydrated apples as affected by moisture and temperature
: Dehydration tolerance of spring wheat and its relation to plant growth and productivity under soil drought conditions. Biol. Plant. , 21 , 452-461.
Dehydration tolerance of spring wheat and its relation to plant growth and
Zhu, Y., Pan, Z., McHugh, T.H. & Barrett, D.M. (2010): Processing and quality characteristics of apple slices processed under simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration with intermittent heating. J. Fd Engng , 97 , 8