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Abstract  

The concept of `adjunct' operation of two lattices with respect to a pair of elements is introduced. A structure theorem namely, `A finite lattice is dismantlable if and only if it is an adjunct of chains' is obtained. Further it is established that for any adjunct representation of a dismantlable lattice the number of chains as well as the number of times a pair of elements occurs remains the same. If a dismantlable lattice L has n elements and n+k edges then it is proved that the number of irreducible elements of L lies between n-2k-2 and n-2. These results are used to enumerate the class of lattices with exactly two reducible elements, the class of lattices with n elements and upto n+1 edges, and their subclasses of distributive lattices and modular lattices.

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Summary G. Grätzer and H. Lakser proved in 1986 that for the finite distributive lattices D and E, with |D| > 1, and for the {0, 1}-homomorphism φ of D into E, there exists a finite lattice L and an ideal I of L such that D ≡ Con L, E ≡ Con I, and φ is represented by the restriction map. In their recent survey of finite congruence lattices, G. Grätzer and E. T. Schmidt ask whether this result can be improved by requiring that L be sectionally complemented. In this note, we provide an affirmative answer. The key to the solution is to generalize the 1960 sectional complement (see Part I) from finite orders to finite preorders.

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This paper argues that subjecthood is a relevant concept in the grammar of (Mandarin) Chinese, i.e., Chinese is subject-prominent as well as topic-prominent, and the most appropriate way of characterising subjects is by determining their regular structural position in clause structure. Subjects are claimed to occupy a structural position distinct from, and to the right of, the typical position associated with topics. This position, furthermore, is shown to stand to the left of the whole predicate phrase, as well as preposed distributive-universal quantifiers, associated with the function word dou. The structural analysis is set in the clause-structural model of Beghelli-Stowell (1995, 1997). Apparent counterexamples to the linking of subjects to the determined subject position are discussed, too, and shown to pose no problem to the proposal laid out here.

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The topic of my paper is the syntax and the quantificational force of free-choice items (FCIs) in Hungarian. FCIs such as any have been at the forefront of research interest in the past decades (e.g., Ladusaw 1979; Kadmon & Landman 1993; Giannakidou 2001). The close interdependence of syntactic, semantic and even pragmatic considerations makes the study of FCIs one of the most interesting research programmes. Earlier investigations of the syntax and semantics of FCIs in Hungarian include Hunyadi (1991; 2002), Abrusán (2007) and Szabó (2012). In my paper, I show that FCIs in Hungarian occupy the syntactic position associated with distributive quantifiers (É. Kiss 2010). Furthermore, I examine the quantificational force of FCIs by the well-known battery of quantification tests (for a previous application for Hungarian, cf. Surányi 2006): almost-modification, modification by exceptive phrase, donkey anaphora, predicative use, is-modification, incorporation and split reading with modals. My findings of mixed quantificational behaviour provide further corroboration for the analysis of FCIs as quantificationally underspecified intensional dependent indefinites.

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Issues related to international competitiveness with regard to social protection, labour markets and effective government are not too many. Hence, this paper pleads for a new vision, one that puts social policy issues' influence, distributive justice and equality firmly back at the centre of the debate about the type of international competitiveness that should be pursued in post-transformation societies, such as Hungary. The study explores the effects of labour-market policies, introduces the term “disembedded social policy” and explores later the possibility of re-embedding this policy. State attention must be focused on reasonable ratios of income equality, similar levels of welfare. The state budget will have to concentrate the neccessary resources for these purposes which limits assets meant for enhancement of competitiveness. Efficient and well-functioning competitiveness policy requests an efficient state administration, as well. The study explores the issue of decentralization and state administration, the role of the state in delegating certain powers to lower levels of administration. Impoverished and weakened governments find it increasingly difficult to pursue the kind of effective micro-economic policies (industrial support and regional development strategies) that are essential features of all successful competitive policies and development experiences. The final part of the study deals with the connection between local governments, competitiveness and democracy.

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, Seth. 2013 . Distributive numerals and distance distributivity in Tlingit (and beyond) . Lingbuzz/001814. Caponigro , Ivano and Anamaria Falaus . 2017 . Free choice free relative clauses in Italian and Romanian . Natural Language and

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GÜTH, W. (1988) On the Behavioral Approach to Distributive Justice. A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation. In Maital, Shlomo (ed.) Applied Behavioral Economics. Vol. II . 703-717. Brighton

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Az ECMO-kezelés megszüntetésének etikai kérdései

Ethical questions of withdrawing ECMO treatment

Orvosi Hetilap
Author:
József Kovács

distributive justice argument permits stopping ECMO. Am J Bioeth. 2023; 23(6): 65–67. 14 Callies DE. Unilateral ECMO withdrawal and the argument from

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References [1] B eck , J. , Distributive laws, in Seminar on Triples and Categorical Homology , B. Eckmann and M. Tierney (eds.), Lecture Notes in

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Abstract  

The aim of this work was to provide a rational frame for the design of scientific policies in MR infrastructure implementation. To this end, we have investigated the relationships between MR instruments, their scientific productivity or medical performance and several socio-economic, R&D or health care indicators in a Spanish and European context. The distribution of MR spectroscopy instruments among Spanish Autonomous Communities suggests that the allocation policy resulted from a compromise between the pull of demand based on regional strength in R&D activities and the push of convergence criteria to bring underdeveloped regions up to a national standard. On the whole, the average value for Spanish MR spectroscopy equipment (1.6 units per TRDP) was within the average value of 1.7 found in 6 European countries. The scientific productivity of these spectrometres in Spain (10.3 publications per unit), compares with the ratio (12.4) found in the United Kingdom and was above the six countries' average (8.3). Larger differences in productivity were observed between Spanish Autonomous Communities, suggesting the existence of important laguna in the distributive side of the allocation policy. Consistent with its socio-sanitary importance, the regional distribution of MR imaging equipment in Spain correlated with the number of sanitary personnel and regional population or wealth. The average number of installed units per million inhabitants in Spain (3.3) is very close to the average found in five European countries and the diagnostic procedures per installed units are close to the 5 countries' average values of 3400/year. However, the scientific productivity of MR imaging equipment in Spain (1.6 publications per installed unit in the five year period) was very low as compared with other European countries (3.7 on average). Higher diagnostic demand or lower publication pressures could explain these differences equally well. Our results suggest that increases in scientific productivity and medical performance of MR instrumentation in Spanish Autonomous Communities may not necessarily involve a net increase in the number of MR instruments but rather, improvements in the global socio-economic throughputs derived from the organisation of R&D and medical service policies.

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