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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) based on a nuclear reactor and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) based on a 2 Me V Van de Graaff accelerator were used to analyse different environmental samples including coal, sawdust, fly ash and landfill materials. These samples represent a large component of the solid waste being buried in the ground, and may be a potential source of toxicity which can have not only adverse effects on the soil and ground water, if diffused during leaching processes, but may also be transferred to humans through the food chain. Both techniques were employed to determine trace element concentrations in these matrices. The concentration of 30 elements were detemined, namely Na, Mg. Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Cd, Ba, La, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Yb, Hf, Ta and Th. The detection limits in the various sample matrices were calculated and a comparison was made for those elements commonly detected by both techniques.

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Abstract  

A simple and rapid laser fluorometric determination of trace and ultra trace level of uranium in a wide variety of low uranium content materials like soil, basic and ultra basic rocks, plant ash, coal fly ash and red mud samples is described. Interference studies of some common major, minor and trace elements likely to be present in different, geological materials on uranium fluorescence are studied using different fluorescence enhancing reagents like sodium pyrophosphate, orthophosphoric acid, penta sodium tri-polyphosphate and sodium hexametaphosphate. The accurate determination of very low uranium content samples which are rich in iron, manganese and calcium, is possible only after the selective separation of uranium. Conditions suitable for the quantitative single step extraction of 25 ng to 20 μg uranium with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide and single step quantitative stripping with dilute neutral sodium pyrophosphate, which also acts as fluorescence enhancing reagent is studied. The aqueous strip is used for the direct laser fluorometric measurement without any further pretreatment. The procedure is applied for the determination of uranium in soil, basalt, plant ash, coal fly ash and red mud samples. The accuracy of the proposed method is checked by analyzing certain standard reference materials as well as synthetic sample with known quantity of uranium. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method are fairly good with RSD ranging from 3 to 5% depend upon the concentration of uranium.

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microorganisms include decomposition of organic matter, nutrient mineralization, crop pest’s suppression and its protection. Fly ash is a residue of burning of coal/lignite in thermal power plant has traditionally been considered as a waste product. The high

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Abstract  

Investigations of physico-chemical properties of three kinds of fly ash and their influence on cement hydration were performed in this work. Thermal analysis, microcalorimetry, infrared absorption and others were used. It was confirmed that the kind of coal and combustion conditions essentially influence physico-chemical properties of fly ash and in consequence influence cement hydration. Investigated fly ashes show in cement system so-called pozzolanic activity. Fly ash from combustion of brown coal in fluidized furnace revealed better activity compared to other investigated ones. This work is an introduction to more extensive investigation of fly ash activation.

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Abstract  

Three bio-fuels with or without additives and their fly ash samples were characterized using simultaneous Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry (TG-DTA-FTIR-MS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS). The results show that the additives increase the reactivity of the bio-fuel during combustion. The additives also significantly decrease the amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash. The additives affect the compounds formed in the fly ash sample, and consequently the thermal behaviour of the fly ash. The fly ash samples are thermally stable in air up to 100C. The fly ash samples contain fine particles with irregular shape, small round particles, and large hollow spherical particles with entrapped gases.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
G. Matuschek
,
J. Cyrys
,
D. Lenoir
, and
A. Kettrup

Abstract  

The effect of oxydation of particulate carbon as a part of fly ash has been studied by mean of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and simultaneous thermal analysis/mass spectrometry (TA/MS). The results from different carbon modifications added to fly ash were discussed and compared to those of the pure samples.

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Abstract  

Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis was applied to the characterisation of the pozzolanic reaction in mortars containing the supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) pitchstone fines (PF) and fly ash (FA) as partial replacements for Portland cement (PC). TG analysis was used to determine the proportion of calcium hydroxide (CH) present from the hydration of the PC based on the dehydroxylation of the CH present in the blended PC-SCM mortars. The consumption of CH indicated that both SCMs underwent the pozzolanic reaction and that PF was found to compare favourably in its pozzolanic reactivity of FA, the industry and globally accepted standard artificial pozzolan.

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Abstract  

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recently released the second renewal of its Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash Standard Reference Material (SRM 1633b). This new material is currently certified for 23 major, minor and trace elements, and concentrations of an additional 24 elements are provided for information only purposes. Current plans are to certify the concentrations of a number of rare earths upon completion of additional analytical work now in progress. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has played a major role in the certification of this new material in view of its potential for accuracy, multielemental capability, ability to assess homogeneity, high sensitivity for many elements, and essentially blank-free nature. For an element to be certified in a NIST SRM its concentration is usually determined by at least two independent analytical techniques. INAA has provided analytical information for 15 of the 23 elements certified, as well as for 22 of the 24 elements listed for information only. In addition, INAA has provided much of the homogeneity information for this SRM. This paper will describe these analytical procedures, and highlight those designed to optimize and assess the accuracy of the INAA measurements.

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Thermal analysis of some fly ashes

II. Self-hardening activity of fly ashes

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Z. Adonyi
and
K. Mészáros Szécsényi

The self-hardening activity of fly ashes was investigated looking for the possibility of their chemical reactions with water without additives. A method had to be developed for separation of the structural water from the adsorbed or free one. The decomposition of the chemically bound water was measured by thermogravimetry. The‘I’ dimensionless number proved to be applicable for the quantitative characterisation of the measured data with more DTG peaks. The examined reaction depends on the chemical composition and the physical structure of the fly ashes and the time of interaction with water. The SO3 content seems important, but the characteristics of the formed compounds differ deeply from the CaSO4·2H2O. The observed and examined reaction is an important factor of the self-hardening process of fly ash deposits.

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