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The response given by the photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzyme activity and nutrient accumulation of kinnow (Citrus nobilis × C. deliciosa) budded on Citrus jambhiri Lush rootstocks (var. Jatti Khatti) to triazole compounds was studied under NaCl stress. Eighteen-month-old budded kinnow plants were irrigated with 0 or 50 mM NaCl with or without triazole compounds. Paclobutrazol (PBZ) at 100 mg 1−1 and triazole (TRZ), triadimefon (TDM) and hexaconazole (HEX) at 20 mg l−1 were applied by drenching the soil one week prior to NaCl application. PBZ, TRZ and TDM were equally effective in preventing chlorophyll degradation under NaCl stress. The improvement in catalase (CAT) activity was greater in TRZ- and TDM-treated plants under stress, while for superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, TRZ, PBZ and TDM were found to be equally effective. The peroxidase (POX) activity increased more in TDM-treated plants. The application of TDM and HEX had a more pronounced effect on the upregulation of proline content under stress. Furthermore, triazole compounds increased the accumulation of K+ and Ca2+ ions and inhibited that of Na+ and Cl, resulting in an improvement in the K+/Na+ and K+/Cl ratios. For PBZ-treated plants, the K+/Na+ and K+/Cl ratios in leaf tissues increased 2.4- and 2.1-fold compared to plants treated with NaCl alone, while HEX had a more striking effect on Ca2+ upregulation and significantly (1.5-fold) increased leaf Ca2+ under stress.

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The rutin content of the grain of 31 buckwheat varieties (28 F. esculentum and 3 F. tataricum ) grown on the high plain of Sila (Region of Calabria) and on the massif of Pollino (Region of Basilicata) presented a substantial degree of variation.Among the F. esculentum varieties the lowest values were found for Botan and Spacinska, while the highest contents were observed in the varieties Emka and Lechnicka Krajova. As expected, the rutin content of the grain of F. tataricum was higher than that of F. esculentum , with the variety Donan showing the highest value.In view of the role of rutin in conferring most of the functional food characteristics of buckwheat, knowledge of the grain rutin content expressed in a specific environment, together with the yield potential, is important for the identification of buckwheat varieties worth adopting in an area such as the high plain of Sila, which, thanks to its extent, has the potential to represent a novel territory for the profitable cultivation of buckwheat in Italy.

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Seven traits of twelve hybrids derived from direct and reciprocal crosses of four parental lines were examined during three years in Hungary. No significant differences were found between the direct and reciprocal crosses for stalk diameter or leaf number over the average of three years in any of the hybrids. Significant differences in the number of primary tassel branches were observed between UDH5 and its reciprocal UDH8, and between UDH6 and its reciprocal UDH11. It was evident in both instances that the degree of heterosis in the reciprocal crosses far exceeded that in the direct ones. A high number of tassel branches was dominant over a low number, so this trait was preferentially inherited in the hybrids. A positive correlation was observed between plant height and main ear attachment height (r = 0.67**). A positive correlation (r = 0.89**) was also found between the length of the main tassel axis above the lowest and above the uppermost side-branch. A medium correlation was observed between the number of primary tassel branches and the plant height (r = −0.42**). The number of primary tassel branches exhibited the highest heterosis. These results can be utilized in practical selection and seed production.

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It was found that diploid seedless watermelon can be produced by pollination with partially functional pollen which was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 600 and 800 Gray (Gy). The diploid seedless fruit was very similar to normal fruit in days to maturity from pollination and rate of fruit set. The number of empty seeds in the diploid seedless fruit varied for the cultivars used in this study. No correlation was found between the number of empty seeds in seedless fruit and the number of normal seeds in normal fruit. Also, the results indicated that seedless watermelon cultivars have a significant increase in total sugar and carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene) content, providing an important source of phytonutrients in the diet. The pollen tube of pollen irradiated with gamma radiation penetrated normally into the synergid and sperm cells were discharged. Subsequently, the egg nucleus and sperm nucleus became attached to each other in the egg cell and a globular embryo was formed. However, the embryo failed to differentiate into organ tissues and degenerated. It was suggested that seedless fruit induced by gamma rays had a beneficial effect in increasing the quantity and quality of watermelon yield via increases in the carotenoid, total sugar content and fruit weight. Also, in some cultivars there was a tendency for the thickness of the rind to decrease.

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The snap bean is a significant food crop. Under the Hungarian climate conditions, the supply of raw material of good quality and appropriate quantity to canning factories can be ensured only with irrigation. The present paper evaluates the result of irrigation experiments carried out on snap beans sown in spring and summer and grown with and without irrigation. The experiments were run over the course of 12 years. In the average of 12 years, the yield was 2.8 t ha-1 for spring-sown and 1.9 t ha-1 in summer-sown plants without irrigation. The lowest level of profitable production, the 5.5 t ha-1 was reached twice in the case of spring-sowing and only once in the case of summer-sowing. Profitable yield production can be ensured only with regular irrigation and thus the yield may be increased by 4-5 times. In four of the twelve years we determined the canopy surface temperature of snap bean stands with and without irrigation. A Raynger II infrared remote thermometer determined the canopy surface temperature each day at 13.00 hours. The canopy temperature can well characterise the water supply of plant stands. This parameter may be used for describing the degree of drought and the water turnover of plant stands with different water supply. The positive values of foliage-air temperature differences (SDD) numerically express the degree of drought and the water supply of the crops. The results indicated that a 1 °C higher SDD value might cause 90-130 kg ha-1 yield loss. The method can be useful for investigation of drought affected natural vegetation responses also.

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The nomenclature of Crataegus lindmanii Hrab.-Uhr. is overviewed and clarified. A new combination (Crataegus lindmanii Hrab.-Uhr. var. ronnigeri (K. Malý) Kerényi-Nagy) is done and a new variety (Crataegus lindmanii var. jodalii) is described with new localities of in Hungary (Visegrád, Mt Ágas) and in Serbia (Fruška Gora, Krušedol near Vrdnik / Фрушка Гора, Крушедол, Врдник; Stara Planina Mts, Basara-Vidlič / Стара планина, Ьасара-Видлич). Determination key for infraspecific taxa, comparison of the taxa, a draft and distribution map of the species in Europe and in the Carpathian Basin are also given.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
L. Červinka
,
P. Burg
,
I. Soural
,
V. Mašán
,
A. Čížková
,
J. Souček
,
V. Višacki
,
O. Ponjičan
, and
A. Sedlar

Abstract

Sauvignon Blanc represents an important grape variety. The wine made from this variety is known to have a wide range of aroma profiles from nettles to tropical fruits. Beside the raw material quality (grapes), the quality of wines can be fundamentally influenced by the technological conditions applied in the wine making process. Yeast and other microorganisms play a key role in the formation of metabolites during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, the effects of autochthonous or selected wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fermentation temperatures (15 °C and 19 °C) were tested on major monoterpenes contents of wines during the period 2016–2017. The obtained values show that the highest contents of linalool (24.36 μg L−1) and hotrienol (11.84 μg L−1) were determined in wine samples produced with active (selected) wine yeast at lower temperature. Sensory evaluation results indicated that monoterpenes can have a positive effect on the overall sensory quality of Sauvignon Blanc wines, despite the fact that their determined concentrations in the evaluated samples were not higher than their threshold values.

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Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, 1889 (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has three distinctive reproductive modes: arrhenotokous, thelytokous and deuterotokous. This experiment was focused on the arrhenotokous leek-(L1) and tobacco-associated (T) T. tabaci lineages. These two lineages are distinctively varied genetically and in host adaptations. L1 and T lineages perform better on leek and tobacco plants, respectively. Fighting occurs between males when they compete for food, mating, and oviposition sites. The aim of this research was to examine the fighting behaviour and characterize the fighting elements of males in L1 and T lineages. The experiment was performed in the laboratory by using a Euromex VC.3036 video camera and each experiment was recorded for a duration of 10 minutes. Transparent PCR tube caps formed the arena to observe the fighting interactions in both lineages. A total of 40 video recordings have been observed and each recording had a different arena. The fighting performance was observed at 2, 5, 8, 10, 12 days old specimens in four replications. This result has shown L1 lineage had better fighting performance and a more aggressive fighting ability than T lineage. Antennal bouts, jumping, flipping, stabbing and pitching are the most commonly observed fighting elements.

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Lactic acid fermentation of carrot as a method of preservation using different lactic acid bacteria, viz. Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus cerevisiae and Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis as such and in sequence at different temperatures and with varying salt content (2, 2.5 and 3%) were employed in the fermentation of carrot. The differences in fermentation behaviour of different microorganisms were quite contrasting at 26 °C, but the sequential culture started deviating from the very first day and acidity increased up to 6 days. A temperature of 26 °C and salt concentration of 2.5% were the best for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation of Asiatic carrot as highest acidity (1.40% lactic acid), low pH and low reducing sugars were achieved in sequential fermentation. The LAB count of 7.8×10 8 CFU ml −1 was also higher at these concentrations coupled with higher sensory scores of the products. Among the fermentation types tried, sequential culture fermentation of the vegetables produced the product with higher acidity, low pH and reducing sugars. The sequential culture fermentation imparted the fermented products better flavour, texture and taste than other products fermented naturally or with lactic cultures of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus lactis in single separate fermentation. Based on the overall and sensory quality evaluation, the fermented carrot product prepared with sequential culture was the best followed by the product prepared using natural microflora.

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