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Claudin-5 is an endothelium-specific tight junction protein. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression pattern of this molecule in intact pancreatic tissues and in well-differentiated and poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas from dogs by the use of cross-reactive humanised anticlaudin-5 antibody. The necropsy samples taken from dogs included 10 nonneoplastic pancreatic tissues, 10 well-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 10 poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 5 intrahepatic metastases of well-differentiated and 5 intrahepatic metastases of poorly differentiated acinar cell carcinomas. A strong lateral membrane claudin-5 positivity was detected in exocrine cells in all intact pancreas samples. The endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans and the epithelial cells of the ducts were negative for claudin-5. The endothelial cells of vessels and lymphatic channels in the stroma of the intact pancreas showed strong membrane positivity for this claudin. All well-differentiated exocrine pancreas carcinomas and all poorly-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma samples showed a diffuse loss of claudin-5 expression. The claudin-5-positive peritumoural vessels and lymphatic channels facilitated the detection of vascular invasion of the claudin-5-negative cancer cells. In liver metastasis samples, the pancreatic carcinomas were negative for claudin-5. It seems that the loss of expression of claudin-5 may lead to carcinogenesis in canine exocrine pancreatic cells.

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The cerebella of 12 dogs infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) and those of three normal dogs were examined. The avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique was used to detect αB-crystallin (αB-c) immunoreactivity and immunolocalisation of the CDV antigen. CDV antigens, immunopositive astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and granular neurons were seen in both the white and grey matter of the infected dogs. In the controls, αB-c immunopositive glial cells were seen in the white matter and around the Purkinje cells. In dogs with distemper, αB-c immunoreactivity was not observed in some of the glial cells around the Purkinje cells. A significant negative correlation of P < 0.01 level was found between areas of severe demyelination and the number of αB-c immunopositive cells in dogs infected with CDV. Such correlation was not observed between mild and moderate demyelinating areas and αB-c immunostaining. The αB-crystallin/total number of cells ratio was found to be significant in severely affected demyelinating areas (P < 0.05). These data indicate that there was a relationship between the degrees of CDV associated with demyelination and the level of αB-c expression in the glial cells.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Katarzyna Knapczyk
,
Malgorzata Duda
,
Bozena Szafranska
,
Katarzyna Wolsza
,
Grzegorz Panasiewicz
,
Marek Koziorowski
, and
Maria Slomczynska

The sites of oestrogen action can be shown by the localisation of their receptors in the target tissues. The aim of the present study was to show the localisation of oestrogen receptors in porcine embryos and fetuses obtained on days 18, 22, 32, 40, 50, 60, 71 and 90 post coitum (p.c.). The visualisation of proteins was conducted in embryos and various fetal organs such as gonads, uterus, lung, kidney, intestine and adrenal gland. Both ERs were observed in the blastocysts on day 18 p.c. In the male, ERβ was detected in the testis and epididymis, whereas ERα was present in the efferent ductules. In the female, ERβ was detected in the ovarian stromal cells investing the oocyte nests, while ERα protein was detected in the surface epithelium. In the uterus, ERs were present in the stromal cells, while ERβ was present in the luminal epithelium. In the non-reproductive fetal porcine tissues ERβ was localised in the lungs, kidneys, adrenal glands and in the umbilical cords. Both ERs were observed in the intestine. It is possible that ERβ may play important roles in the development of the adrenal gland, testis, kidney and lungs, while both ERs are involved in the development of the ovary, uterus, epididymis and intestine of the porcine fetus.

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This study reports on changes caused by chemically driven inflammation and axotomy in galanin-like immunoreactive (GAL-LI) nerve structures in the porcine descending colon. The distribution pattern of GAL-LI structures was studied using the immunofluorescence technique in the circular muscle layer, the myenteric (MP), outer submucous (OSP) and inner submucous plexuses (ISP), and also in the mucosal layer. Under physiological conditions GAL-LI perikarya were shown to constitute 3.68 ± 0.32%, 7.02 ± 0.93% and 10.99 ± 0.71% in MP, OSP and ISP, respectively. Both colitis and axotomy caused an increase in GAL-like immunoreactivity, which was different in particular parts of the bowel segment studied. The numbers of GAL-LI perikarya increased to 14.16 ± 0.49%, 16.78 ± 1.09% and 37.46 ± 1.18% during colitis and 7.92 ± 0.72%, 10.44 ± 0.71% and 16.20 ± 0.96% after axotomy in MP, OSP and ISP, respectively. Both these processes caused an increase in the number of GAL-LI nerve fibres in the circular muscle and mucosal layers as well as the appearance of a population of GAL-LI cells in the mucosa.

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Sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons projecting to the descending colon of the pig were studied by means of retrograde tracing (Fast Blue, FB) and double-labelling immunofluorescence methods. FB was injected into the gut wall and after three weeks survival time the animals were transcardially perfused with paraformaldehyde and the bilateral sympathetic trunks were collected. The FBpositive neurons were localised only in the lumbar (L 1 –L 5 ) ganglia of the sympathetic trunk and appeared either as small (30–50 μm in diameter) round-shaped perikarya forming clusters localised in caudal-ventral area or, rarely, as bigger (50–80 μm) and dispersed solitary irregular perikarya. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the catecholaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase-/dopamine β-hydroxylase-immunoreactive) character of the great majority of FB-positive neurons which preferentially co-expressed neuropeptide Y. In addition, none of the FB-positive perikarya was immunopositive to galanin, somatostatin, choline acetyltransferase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, leu 5 -enkephalin, nitric oxide synthase, substance P and calcitonin-generelated peptide.

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The infectious origin of fatal cases of calf pneumonia was studied in 48 calves from 27 different herds on postmortem examination. Lung tissue samples were examined by pathological, histological, bacterial culture, virus isolation and immunohistochemical methods for the detection of viral and bacterial infections. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 47/48 cases and infectious agents were found in 40/47 (85%) of those cases. The presence of multiple respiratory pathogens in 23/40 (57.5%) cases indicated the complex origin of fatal calf pneumonia. The most important respiratory pathogens were Mannheimia-Pasteurella in 36/40 (90%) cases, followed by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 16/40 (40%) cases, Mycoplasma bovis in 12/40 (30%) cases, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in 4/40 (10%) cases. Histophilus somni was detected in 2/40 (5%) cases, while bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and parainfluenza virus-3 were each found in 1/40 (2.5%) case. Mastadenovirus, bovine coronavirus, influenza A virus or Chlamydiaceae were not detected.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Meliha Sengezer-Inceli
,
O. Murathanoglu
,
Songül Castillo
,
Serap Sancar-Bas
, and
E. Kaptan

The role of prolactin in the regulation of frog skin functions is still unclear particularly during environmental changes. In this study, prolactin receptor (PRLR) was detected in active and hibernating frog dorsal skin using immunohistochemical method. PRLR immunoreactivity in active frogs was observed in the epidermis, in the secretory epithelium of granular glands and the secretory channel cells of the glands. Myoepithelial cells of granular glands that started accumulating secretory material or those with a full lumen were PRLR immunoreactive, while some myoepithelial cells of empty granular glands were negative for PRLR. In hibernating frogs, this immunoreactivity was observed in the same regions; however, immunoreactivity was more intense than that in active frogs. PCNA was employed for detection of proliferative activity of PRL in the dorsal skin, and immunoreactivity was detected in the nuclei of a few epidermis cells and in the duct of glands of active frogs. The number of immunoreactive nuclei in these regions increased in hibernating and in prolactin injected groups. We conclude that prolactin provides morphological and functional integrity of skin stimulating the proliferation and regulating the function of granular glands and plays an important role in the adaptation of amphibians to the long winter period.

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Organization of the innervation of the buccal region by 5-HT-immunoreactive (IR) elements was investigated in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis , with special attention to developmental aspects. A gradual maturation is characteristic for the 5-HT-IR muscle innervation, appearing first by late (E80–90%) embryogenesis. It runs parallel with the muscle development and the maturation of the 5-HTergic innervation in the buccal ganglia, peaking by the mid-postembryogenesis (P3) with the presence of a 5-HTIR network in the buccal mass and rich innervation in the buccal ganglia, including axo-somatic contacts. The whole process seems to match with the appearance of the adult-like feeding (radula protrusion).

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Behavioral conditioning in Lymnaea increased the amount of immunolabeling in the central nervous system for the memory-associated protein calexcitin. The staining level of anti-calexcitin positive neurons was always stronger in conditioned animals than in naïe animals. In the visuo-vestibular conditioned animals, right-parietal and visceral group neurons as well as withdrawal-related neurons were positively stained with anti-calexcitin antibody. In taste-aversion conditioned animals, right-parietal visceral G-group neurons and withdrawal-related neurons were selectively stained. These neurons are candidate neurons for modulation by these conditioning paradigms.

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For more than a century, cephalopod molluscs have been the subject of extensive studies with respect to their complex neuroanatomy and behavior. In comparison to gastropod molluscs surprisingly little work has been carried out on the characterization of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of cephalopods with respect to their neurotransmitter phenotypes. This study presents preliminary results on the distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons within the CNS of the pygmy squid Idiosepius notoides . Its gross neuroanatomy resembles that of other cephalopods. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity was observed in most of the brain lobes. High abundance of FMRFamidergic perikarya was found in the dorsal basal, the central palliovisceral, and the olfactory lobes, whereas none were observed in the middle suboesophageal mass. Single individual perikarya are located within the optic lobes and the vertical lobes. Although certain immunohistochemical traits are shared with other cephalopods, such as a wall-like arrangement of FMRFamide-like immunoreactive cell somata within the dorsal basal lobe, others have so far only been found in Idiosepius . However, future investigations on other species are necessary in order to broaden our knowledge on a common recruitment of certain neurotransmitters in distinct brain lobes of the highly advanced brain of cephalopods.

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