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Abstract  

Neutron scattering (NS) is a “big science” discipline whose research spans over a wide spectrum of fields, from fundamental or basic science to technological applications. The objective of this paper is to track the evolution of Spanish research in NS from a bibliometric perspective and to place it in the international context. Scientific publications of Spanish authors included in the Web of Science (WoS 1970–2006) are analysed with respect to five relevant dimensions: volume of research output, impact, disciplinary diversity, structural field features and internationalisation. NS emerges as a highly internationalised fast-growing field whose research is firmly rooted in Physics, Chemistry and Engineering, but with applications in a wide range of fields. International collaboration links -present in around 70% of the documents- and national links have largely contributed to mould the existing structure of research in the area, which evolves around major neutron scattering facilities abroad. The construction of a new European neutron source (ESS) would contribute to the consolidation of the field within the EU, since it will strengthen research and improve current activity.

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There has been a substantial increase in the percentage for publications with co-authors located in departments from different countries in 12 major journals of psychology. The results are evidence for a remarkable internationalization of psychological research, starting in the mid 1970s and increasing in rate at the beginning of the 1990s. This growth occurs against a constant number of articles with authors from the same country; it is not due to a concomitant increase in the number of co-authors per article. Thus, international collaboration in psychology is obviously on the rise.

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This review of social science bibliometric literature seeks to establish characteristics of the social science literature and to understand their consequences for the coverage of literature databases and for interpretation of bibliometric social science indicators based on such databases. The paper reviews what we know about social science publishing and database coverage of it. It examines the main reasons why social science bibliometrics are problematic, namely: the centrality of books in social science literature and their high citation rate; and the national orientation of social science literatures. The paper then looks at reasons why social science bibliometrics holds increasing promise, namely: increasing internationalization; and good coverage of scholarly journals.

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The publication and coauthorship patterns between 1980–1994 of 15 highly productive Mexican scientists were studied in relation to their 565 research papers involving only national institutions and 232 published with colleagues from abroad. Three scientists were selected from each of the following areas: Biomedicine, Chemistry, Physics, Astronomy and Astrophysics and Geosciences. Parameters studied were: vehicles used for publication; document types; number of authors; collaborating countries; and author position. The results are discussed in relation to Mexico's peripheral position with regard to the scientific center, and the increasing internationalization of Mexican science.

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In this paper, the convergence in R&D expenditure across 21 European Union countries is examined by applying fractional integration analysis. Data are annual and cover the period 1990–2010. Results show that there is certain degree of convergence in R&D intensity. However, the speed of the convergence varies across countries. For most of the countries, the speed of convergence is higher in the R&D expenditures of governments than in the R&D expenditures of higher education institutions and businesses. Differences in the speed of convergence could be explained by differences in industry structures, in cultural trajectories, in macroeconomic conditions, or in internationalisation. The more dissimilar countries are in terms of these factors the more likely they are to have divergent paths. Furthermore, differences in R&D convergence by institutional sectors could be due to the different goals of each sector and to the relative weight of each sector in the entire economy.

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Patent statistics are a frequently used innovation indicator for the description and analysis of technological strengths and weaknesses, both on the macro and the micro level. Patent data has a broad coverage, high reliability, allows a very differentiated perspective and the data has become easier in availability and accessibility. Especially when cross country comparisons and comparative assessments are intended, a deep knowledge and understanding of patent systems is required. In the 1990s Triadic patents, which were able to balance the home advantage of domestic applicants/inventors. An increasing internationalisation and globalisation makes it also necessary to adapt the patent analyses to this new world order. In this paper the so called Transnational patents are suggested, which allows to grasp the new relations and relative positions between the industrialised, industrialising and emerging countries. The existing concepts are presented and discussed and contrasted against the concept of Transnational Patents.

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De iure, all democratic countries recognize the rights of citizens or immigrants who have a limited or no command of the national language. Nevertheless, de facto, these rights are often neglected, especially in administrative authorities, healthcare services, and even in law courts, where - often literally - matters of life and death are at stake. The paper describes the structure and underlying philosophy of an International Bachelor's degree programme in Court and Community Interpreting that was established at the Department of Technical Communication of the University of Applied Sciences of Magdeburg, Germany (Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal) in 1999. Modularisation, internationalisation, interdisciplinarity, language-independent training, and the ethics of intercultural mediation are the basic principles of the programme. This means that the programme's purpose is to make the most of scarce resources by means of a modular structure and close cooperation between Faculties and Institutions at home and abroad, training professional intermediaries for a modern multicultural society.

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The occurrence of Asian Financial Crisis and successive scandals highlight the importance of corporate governance on which the public start to stress. “Pursuing internationalization for sustainable development” has become a trend for corporate development in the future. Nonetheless, the promotion of internationalization enhances multiple operating environments and information complexity. An enterprise therefore has to adjust the existing organizational structure and construct favorable corporate governance mechanisms to timely reflect market demands and have the enterprise acquire the advantage of the economy of scale through overseas extension points. With the approach of globalization era, the extreme dependence of economic activities on import/export hastens Taiwan actively joining in World Trade Organization (WTO) to enhance the circulation of goods and resources among member states. Under such a trend, the industrial structure in Taiwan needs to be adjusted, and industries with competitiveness would present larger development space. Aiming at listed companies in Taiwan Stock Exchange, the research period is set 16 years, from 1999 to 2014. The research results conclude that 1. competition would affect corporate governance, 2. competition would influence corporate performance, and 3. corporate governance would affect corporate performance. The research results are expected to inspire international enterprises with the competition evaluation and corporate governance adjustment to promote the corporate performance.

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Our basic storyline is how the business and economics higher education landscape has changed with the introduction of the Bologna programs. We borrowed the fashionable long tail concept from e-business, and used it for modeling the new landscape of internationalization of universities. Internationalization, mobility, and the appearance of the internet generation at the gates of our universities in our opinion has brought us to a new e-era which, appropriately to our web analogies we might as well call Education 2.0.In our paper first we show the characteristics of the long tail model of the Bologna-based European higher education and potential messages for strategy making in this environment. We illustrate that benchmarking university strategies situated in the head of the long tail model will not always provide strategic guidance for universities sitting in the tail. For underlining some key concerns in the Hungarian niche, we used Corvinus University as a case study to illustrate some untapped challenges of the Hungarian Bologna reform. We explored three areas which are crucial elements of the “tail” strategy in our opinion: a) the influence of state regulation, b) social situations and impacts and c) internal university capabilities.

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This article reports findings from the study of the international contribution to the system of library and information science communication in Poland in the years 2003–2005. The sample consists of articles published both in selected journals and collective works. Two important dimensions determining the internationalization of local scholarly communication are considered: direct contribution (foreign authors’ articles and papers and their translations published in Poland) and indirect contribution (citedness of foreign authors’ documents in articles and papers published in Poland). Bibliographic data about the geographical distribution and affiliation of foreign authors are gathered and analyzed. Furthermore, the findings of citation analysis are presented to determine the percentage share of citations received by foreign documents as well as to find out what is the structure of such citations regarding the language and form, which thematic areas are most replete with such citations and which foreign journals are most cited in Poland.

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