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. Furthermore, multiple occupational levels within the same occupational fields also contribute to this diversity. The different production systems of each country as well as the ways their labor markets are structured is another element that brings diversity

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a double-edged sword, as employing young people in the labor market can have long-term positive effects. Thus, one can earn income and generate higher revenue that can fulfill the current consumption needs. In addition, we can also mention the

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A mesterséges intelligencia az oktatásban: kihívások és lehetőségek

Artificial Intelligence in education: Challenges and perspectives

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Ferenc Dietz

-struggle-to-hold-pencils-due-to-too-much-tech-doctors-say 2019.08.12. How will AI impact the Hungarian labour market? PricewaterhouseCoopers Magyarország Kft. https://www.pwc.com/hu/en/publications/assets/How-will-AI-impact-the-Hungarian-labour-market

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Introduction Due to the extraordinary circumstances resulting from the Covid-19 pandemic in the last two years, organizations have had to face labor market changes that are rare in the life cycles of companies. As a

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The paper presents a project based on the complex case management model aimed at improving the labour market position of permanently unemployed clients. The aim of the case management is to improve the employee skills and capabilities of the clients in order to assist them in getting a job on the open labor market. The model builds on fast, action-oriented interventions, and the principle of the voluntary participation of clients. The process is time-limited, which the goal of reaching certain developmental objectives during a defined time period. We present a case study as an example of this model.

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Since the beginning of the transition, Hungarian higher education has been undergoing continuous transformation. The number of students in higher education more than doubled, and this was accompanied by the appearance of newly founded church-run and private higher education institutions and newly established cost-priced places. The paper focuses on the potential negative effects private and cost-priced higher education might have on the quality of education and students, by making use of labour-market-success indicators (wages and labour-market status) with the help of multivariate estimation techniques. A unique data set, the Second FIDÉV Survey, is used which provides information about the September 2000 labour-market situation of persons graduated from higher education in 1999. The results suggest that education at cost-priced, state-funded places and private higher-education institutions provides essentially the same level of knowledge or produces the same educational quality as measured by wages. No negative effect has been detected as for the labour-market status of ex-students. Students graduating from cost-priced places and private institutions experience the same unemployment probability, whereas the overall employment probability of students graduated from cost-priced places is higher than that of persons studied at state-funded ones. One can conclude that although the opportunity of establishing more and more cost-priced places might have been advantageous for higher-education institutions so as to increase their revenues, they have shown some self-restraint in this respect, and there is no sign that the increase in cost-priced places has led to lower-quality workers.

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In this paper we analyze whether and how unemployment patterns changed during the transition from socialism to capitalism in Hungary and Poland. Specifically, we test two competing theories that make predictions about women's employment outcomes as a result of market reforms.First, Fodor's theory of „revalued resources” predicts that women will have a significant advantage over men in the labor market as a result of attaining high levels of education and gaining substantial work experience in the servicesector under socialist regime. Alternatively, the „re-traditionalization” theory predicts that women's emloyment will gradually deteriorate as a result of traditional gender ideologies that have re-emerged throughout the transitional period. In order to adjudicate between these competing theories, our analysis draws upon two major cross-national surveys conducted in Central and Eastern Europe in 1993 and 2000. By comparing labor market figures in Hungary and Poland in 1988, 1993 and 2001, our analysis maps the trajectory of men and women's unemployment from the period immediately precedeing market reforms to the current phase of transition. Overall, we find modest evudence for both theories depending on the country of interest. íFurthermore, while women, as compared to men, have sustained a relatively strong position in the labor market after over a decade of reforms in Hungary, the employment situation for women in Poland is becoming increasingly bleak.

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Considerable amounts of time and money are spent on job-training of school leavers graduated from higher-education institutions. More than a half of the employees in our sample participated in job-training between the graduation date (1999) and September 2000. The work in this paper considers two aspects of the problem. First, the relationship between training probability/training length and the initial human capital (proxied by level of education and in-school labour-market experience) is concerned with, and, second, some elements of the training-cost-sharing decision is analysed. There are some signs that university education reduces the probability of training as compared to college education, whereas in-school labour-market experience increases it. University education reduces training length as well. In-school labour-market experience has no effect on the length of job-training. Another important result is that school-leavers holding diplomas with “narrower” types of education are more likely to obtain training, and also to have longer training programmes. This implies a more severe matching problem in the case of “narrower” types of education, possibly due to prohibitive searching costs for finding a good-quality match. Results for the cost-sharing decision are in line with Becker's idea, since the firm is less likely to entirely cover the costs of general training and more likely to finance job-specific training programmes.

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Összefoglaló. A felsőoktatás egyik legfontosabb feladata, hogy a munkaerőpiac által megkövetelt kompetenciákra felkészítse a hallgatókat, tehát a felsőoktatás, a munkaerőpiac, különösen a rendvédelmi szervek által képviselt speciális munkaerőpiac kongruenciájának kialakítása kiemelt figyelmet érdemel. A kompetenciák közül a 21. században megjelenő pozíciók ellátásához a digitális olvasás- és írástudás, valamint a kommunikáció fejlesztése elengedhetetlen. A kutatási téma célja a hallgatók digitális és verbális kommunikációs szintjének fejlesztése a szaknyelvi órák keretében különböző nyelvtanulási módszerek és nyelvtanulási stratégiák alkalmazásával. Tervezett kutatásunkban empirikus vizsgálatot végzünk a Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem Rendészettudományi Karán szaknyelvet tanuló nappali tagozatos hallgatókkal.

Summary. The main task of higher education is to prepare students for the competencies declared by the labour market, thus the development of congruence between higher education and labour market especially the special labour market represented by law enforcement deserves special attention. Among the competencies, digital skills are placed at the forefront, as digital literacy and communication are essential for 21st-century positions. The aim of the research topic is to improve students’ digital and verbal communication levels with the use of different language teaching methods and language learning strategies in ESP (English for specific purposes) classes. Empirical research will be carried out with full-time students at the Faculty of Law Enforcement at the University of Public Service.

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A közfoglalkoztatottaknak szóló képzések vizsgálata hazánkban (2016–2020)

Study of Trainings for Public Employees in Hungary (2016–2020)

Educatio
Author:
Dávid Hajdú

A tanulmány az elsődleges munkaerőpiacról kikerült közfoglalkoztatottaknak szóló képzések főbb jellemzőit vizsgálja a 2016–2020 közötti időszakban, kitérve a résztvevők számának nem, korcsoport, iskolai végzettség szerinti megoszlására, valamint a későbbi sikeres munkaerőpiaci elhelyezkedésre is. A közfoglalkoztatás egy átmeneti állapot, amely arra hivatott, hogy a munka világából kiszorulókat visszasegítse a munka világába. A közfoglalkoztatottaknak szóló képzések ugyanezen cél mentén jöttek létre, hogy egy új szakma elsajátításával minél hamarabb munkához jussanak a képzéseken részt vevők. Az eredmények nagy területi, térségi különbségeket mutatnak, és kijelenthető, hogy azokba a térségekbe (főként a keleti régiókba) csoportosultak a képzések, ahol a legnagyobb szükség van rá. Ugyanakkor összességében elmondható, hogy a képzések nem érték el a kívánt eredményt, hiszen a képzést sikeresen elvégző közfoglalkoztatottak a képzés elvégzése után 6 hónappal vagy munkanélkülivé váltak, vagy csak a másodlagos munkaerőpiacon, azaz közfoglalkoztatottként tudtak csak újra elhelyezkedni.

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