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L’Oulipo est un groupe littéraire né en 1960 dont le principe est l’écriture de textes littéraires à contraintes. L’auteur de cet article présente les conceptions oulipiennes de la littérature, qui ne sont pas sans relations avec la problématique de la traduction. De la traduction poétique, en particulier, puisque celle-ci doit faire face à toutes sortes de contraintes imposées par la forme de l’original à traduire. On présente aussi brièvement la comparaison de la pratique de la traduction poétique en France et en Hongrie. En finissant avec le cas concret de traductions de certains textes oulipiens, notamment ceux de Jacques Roubaud en hongrois.

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We have developed a formula that assigns relative values to each author of the list in any publication according to the authors' relative positions. The formula satisfies several criteria of theoretical and practical significance. We tested the formula's validity and usefulness with bibliographical references from the INSPEC database, mainly from the physical sciences. Enforced alphabetical sorting, different names of single authors and other statistical disturbances are accounted for. Our results demonstrate that our formula, or any other that satisfies several objective and quantitative criteria, can and often should be used as an additional criterion in the processes of evaluating relative scientific productivity, detecting experts in a given discipline, etc.

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Abstract

The legend of Pyramus and Thisbe has been a popular theme in art, poetry and music alike, from antiquity onwards. Its spectacular drama-poetic, musical, ballet and opera adaptations increased throughout Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. The author roughly characterizes the features of artworks created in different periods, and specifies with what implications in content, under what sort of inspiration Bianchi represented the story in his Budapest drawing, which was formerly unidentified both for its master and its subject-matter.

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Maximal clique enumeration and maximum clique generation are well known NP-complete discrete optimization problems. Researchers experiment with parallel implementations of known algorithms in order to speed up the resolution process. Parallel implementations are equivalent to divisions of the feasible region that is an implicit decomposition of the original problem. The below study looks for the possible ways of explicit decomposition, which can subsequently serve as bases of parallel algorithms. The paper introduces formally the notion of decomposition, specifies explicit algorithms for different sorts of decomposition, provides and compares decomposition based algorithms for the maximum clique problem.

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Acta Linguistica Academica
Authors:
Alexis Wellwood
,
Susan J. Hespos
, and
Lance Rips

Semanticists often assume an ontology for natural language that includes not only ordinary objects, but also events, and other sorts of entities. We link this ontology to how speakers represent static and dynamic entities. Specifically, we test how speakers determine whether an entity counts as “atomic” by using count vs. mass (e.g., some gleebs, some gleeb) and distributive vs. non-distributive descriptions (e.g., gleeb every second or so, gleeb around a little). We then seek evidence for atomic representation in a non-linguistic task. Ultimately we suggest that natural language ontology reveals properties of language-independent conceptualization.

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The paper describes efficient methods to post-process results from the finite element analysis. Amount of data produced by the complex analysis is enormous. However, computer performance and memory are limited and commonly-used software tools do not provide ways to post-process data easily. Therefore, some sort of simplification of data has to be used to lower memory consumption and accelerate data loading. This article describes a procedure that replaces discrete values with a set of continuous functions. Each approximation function can be represented by a small number of parameters that are able to describe the character of resulting data closely enough.

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Summary Parallel mappings of the intellectual and cognitive structure of Software Engineering (SE) were conducted using Author Cocitation Analysis (ACA), PFNet Analysis, and card sorting, a Knowledge Elicitation (KE) method. Cocitation counts for 60 prominent SE authors over the period 1990 - 1997 were gathered from SCISEARCH. Forty-six software engineers provided similar data by sorting authors’ names into labeled piles. At the 8 cluster level, ACA and KE identified similar author clusters representing key areas of SE research and application, though the KE labels suggested some differences between the way that the authors’ works were used and how they were perceived by respondents. In both maps, the clusters were arranged along a horizontal axis moving from “micro” to “macro” level R&D activities (correlation of X axis coordinates = 0.73). The vertical axis of the two maps differed (correlation of Y axis coordinates = -0.08). The Y axis of the ACA map pointed to a continuum of high to low formal content in published work, whereas the Y axis of the KE map was anchored at the bottom by “generalist” authors and at the top by authors identified with a single, highly specific and consistent specialty. The PFNet of the raw ACA counts identified Boehm, Basili, and Booch as central figures in subregions of the network with Boehm being connected directly or through a single intervening author with just over 50% of the author set. The ACA and KE combination provides a richer picture of the knowledge domain and provide useful cross-validation.

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Abstract  

Earlier researchers like Turkeli, suggested that ‘the factors which determine the productivity of scientists are admittedly complex and perhaps not amenable to real scientific analysis′. The present investigation was designed with the sole purpose of confronting such a complex problem. Nearly 200 variables influencing research productivity were collected through relevant literature, analysis of biographies of great scientists, and discussion with eminent scientists. Finally, through a critical examination, 80 variables were selected for the use of Q-sort technique. The sample for the study consisted of a cross section of scientists ranging from Fellows of Indian National Science Academy to young agricultural scientists. Mailed questionnaires and personal interview methods were used for collecting data. Out of a total of 912 respondents, reply was obtained from 325. On the basis of Q-sorted data, 26 variables were selected for further analysis and they were subjected to principal component factor analysis. The results indicated eleven factors affecting research productivity of scientists. They were: persistence, resource adequacy, access to literature, initiative, intelligence, creativity, learning capability, stimulative leadership, concern for advancement, external orientation, and professional commitment.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
T. Ábel
,
A. Blázovics
,
A. Wimmer
,
G. Bekő
,
B. Gaál
,
B. Blazics
,
M. Eldin
,
J. Fehér
,
I. Szabolcs
, and
G. Lengyel

The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity is actually a topic of intense research nowadays. In this study we investigated the effect of moderate consumption of white wine in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-two patients with metabolic syndrome participated in this prospective, randomised, double-blind study. The subjects received either Müller-Thurgau (n=14) or Pintes (n=18) sort of wine for 4 weeks. Male and female subjects consumed 300 ml wine (30 g alcohol) and 200 ml wine (20 g alcohol) per day, respectively. Clinical and laboratory parameters were determined before and after the period of wine consumption. The HOMA-IR showed a significant decrease upon the consumption of both sorts of wine as compared to the baseline (Müller-Thurgau group: 1.85±2.1 vs. 1.06±0.6; P=0.03; Pintes group: 2.28±2.04 vs. 1.08±0.6; P=0.002). Four weeks of wine consumption lead to significant decreased of ALT (alanine aminotransferase; Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.003; Pintes group: P=0.002) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase; Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.003; Pintes group: P=0.02). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) levels increased significantly in both groups (Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.004; Pintes group: P=0.001). The plasma reducing capacity increased significantly upon the consumption of both sorts of wine (Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.002; Pintes group: P=0.001). In patients consuming Müller-Thurgau there was a significant decrease of total cholesterol (5.4±1.4 vs. 4.9±1.2 mmol l−1; P=0.006) and LDL-cholesterol (3.9±1.1 vs. 3.6±1.2 mmol l−1; P=0.04) levels. In the Pintes group we found no significant difference either in total cholesterol (5.1±0.6 vs. 5.0±0.7 mmol l−1; P=0.25) or LDL-cholesterol (3.6±0.6 vs. 3.6±0.6 mmol l−1; P=0.5) concentrations. The results of our study confirm that moderate consumption of white wine increases insulin sensitivity and EGF levels in persons with metabolic syndrome.

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Abstract

Relying on the experiences of my fieldwork carried out in the town of Jedwabne in Poland, my article investigates the way in which a deeply traumatized field potentially makes anthropological inquiry impossible, and the methodological and ethical problems researchers face both in the course of fieldwork and while processing, analyzing, and making the knowledge gained through research public. The first part briefly introduces the small town of Jedwabne, the conflict that drew me to this place, and the research project, which I believed I was never going to be able to write about. In the second part, I discuss the complex system of taboos that I termed ‘the culture of seclusion’, which, in my view, is the most typical aspect of the society of Jedwabne, as well as the greatest challenge of my research. As a sort of synthesis of the first two parts, in the third part I consider some practical issues and concerns related to the fieldwork.

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