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Spot blotch of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, is worldwide and economically one of the most important diseases. The structure of the B. sorokiniana population is not uniform. Within isolates of this species, there are strains that differ in virulence and aggressiveness. The aim of the study was to determine the variability of virulence within Polish isolates of B. sorokiniana and to test selected strains of this fungus terms of their pathogenicity in relation to different spring barley cultivars. The diversity of 70 Polish isolates of B. sorokiniana was determined based on the reaction of three spring barley test lines – Bowman, ND5883 and NDB12 with a certain susceptibility to infection by this pathogen and compared to three isolates of B. sorokiniana: ND93-1 classified to pathotype 0, ND85F – pathotype 1 and ND90Pr – pathotype 2. In the population of 70 isolates of B. sorokiniana, two pathotypes – 0 (14 isolates) and 1 (56 isolates) were identified. The mean values of leaf infection index evaluated for lines – Bowman, ND5883 and NDB12 in the case of B. sorokiniana isolates of pathotype 0 ranged: 17.08, 25.42 and 18.13, respectively, and in the case of B. sorokiniana isolates of pathotype 1: 15.57, 59.81 and 17.98, respectively. In the second experiment, the susceptibility of 8 spring barley cultivars to leaf infection by 10 selected isolates of B. sorokiniana (5 of pathotype 0 and 5 of pathotype 1) was tested. The mean value of leaf infection index calculated for analyzed cultivars in experimental combination with pathotype 0 isolates of B. sorokiniana was 1.56, and in the case of isolates of pathotype 1 was 16.58.

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The effect of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) infection was studied on the ultrastructure of etioplasts and the greening process of barley ( Hordeum vulgare cv. Pannónia) plants infected by seed transmission. The leaves of 7–11-day old etiolated seedlings were examined with transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectroscopy. The etioplasts of infected seedlings contained smaller prolamellar bodies with less regular membrane structure while prothylakoid content was higher than in the control. Characteristic effect was observed in the process of the Shibata-shift: 40 min delay was observed in the infected leaves. The results of this work proved that BSMV infection significantly delays or inhibits the plastid development and the formation of photosynthetic apparatus.

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Blumeria graminis in barley genotypes ( Hordeum vulgare L.) under field and controlled conditions . J. Plant Biol. Res. 2 , 107 – 112 . Arabi , M. I. E. , Al-Safadi , B. , Jawhar , M. and Mir-Ali , N. ( 2005 ): Enhancement of embryogenesis

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. 2012 . Malting revisited: Germination of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) is inhibited by both oxygen deficiency and high carbon dioxide concentrations . Food chem. 132 ( 1 ): 476 – 481

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árpa ( Hordeum vulgare L.) műtrágyázása vályog csernozjom talajon . Növénytermelés . 49 : 661 – 675 . 9 Kádár I. : 2000b . Az őszi árpa ( Hordeum vulgare L

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A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of K nutrition and genotypic variation on the dry matter (DM) accumulation, and the K concentration, accumulation, uptake and utilization efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Successive increases in potassium nutrition had a significant effect on the dry matter and K accumulation either in the total or in various plant parts of barley at the tillering, stem elongation, heading and maturity growth stages. K nutrition also led to significantly higher grain yield with each unit K application than without K application. The yield increase due to K application was mainly due to the improvement in spike development from tillers. Dry matter and K accumulation in various plant parts varied significantly between genotypes at the main growth stages. Among the various plant parts, the stem contained the highest K concentration, had the highest K accumulation at maturity and changed considerably with the K level, while other plant parts remained relatively unchanged. Among the eleven genotypes, genotype 98-6 had the highest grain yield and the K use efficiency of this genotype was 10.4 kg grain per kg K applied. It could thus be used as a breeding line to breed barley varieties for higher productivity under rainfed conditions with low available soil potassium.

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The hordein proteins of ten barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars grown in region of eastern Croatia were studied for their contribution to the malting quality, particularly relating hordein influence on malt extract yield. The analysis of hordein proteins was carried out by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The micromalting of investigated barley cultivars and malt analyses were done according to the EBC official methods. The quantitative analysis of hordein proteins has showed that B-hordein was major component, followed by C- and D-hordeins. Among investigated cultivars the malt extract yield varied from 76.8% (cv. Angora) to 82.6% (cv. Scarlett). Spring barleys had on the average higher malt extract yield in contrast to winter barleys. The significant negative correlation between the total hordein content and malt extract yield was found. Among hordein fractions the B-hordein and D-hordein significantly contributed to lower malt extract yield. RP-HPLC analysis of malt hordeins revealed that the amount of hordein degraded during malting significantly correlated with Kolbach index.

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Abstract

Water availability is one of the major physiological factors influencing plant growth and development. An assessment study has been done at the Szent István University, Gödöllő to evaluate and identify the water footprint of protein yield of field crop species. Twelve field crop species (Sugar beet Beta vulgaris, spring and winter barley Hordeum vulgare, winter wheat Triticum aestivum, maize Zea mays, sunflower Helianthus annuus, peas Pisum sativum, potato Solanum tuberosum, alfalfa Medicago sativa, oilseed rape Brassica napus, rye Secale cereale and oats Avena sativa) were involved in the study. Evapotranspiration patterns of the crops studied have been identified by the regular agroclimatology methodology and physiologically reliable protein ranges within crop yields were evaluated.

The results obtained suggest, that water footprint of cereals proved to be the lowest, however maize values were highly affected by the high variability of protein yield. Oilseed crops had considerably high protein yield with medium water efficiency. Alfalfa, potato and sugar beet water footprints were in accordance with their evapotranspiration patterns.

Protein based water footprint assessment seems to be more applicable in crop species evaluations than that of yield based methodologies.

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. (1985) Mutagenic effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid alone and with ethyl methane sulphonate in Hordeum vulgare L., Environ. Pollut. A Ecol. Biol. 38 , 9-17. Mutagenic effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid alone

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mannitol pretreatment in anther and microspore culture of Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Igri. J. Plant Physiol. 148: 696–700. Heidekamp F. The interaction of 2,4-D application and mannitol

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