Authors:P. Grant, P. Robouch, R. Torres, and R. Silva
Instrumentation has been developed to perform uv-vis-nir absorbance measurements remotely and at elevated temperatures and pressures. Fiber-optic spectroscopy permits the interrogation of radioactive species within a glovebox enclosure at temperatures ranging from ambient to >100 °C. Spectral shifts as a function of metal-ligand coordination are used to compute thermodynamic free energies of reaction by matrix regression analysis. Pr3+ serves as a convenient analog for trivalent actinides without attendant radioactivity hazards, and recent results obtained from 20–95 °C with the Pr-acetate complexation system are presented. Preliminary experimentation on Am(III) hydrolysis is also described.
Authors:B. Smith, R. Gibson, G. Jarvinen, M. Jones, M. Lu, T. Robison, N. Schroeder, and N. Stalnaker
Water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration are shown to be an effective method for selectively
removing dilute actimide ions from acidic solutions of high ionic strength. The actinide-binding properties of commercially
available water-soluble polymers and several polymers which have been reported in the literature were evaluated. The functional
groups incorporated in the polymers were pyrrolidone, amine, oxime, and carboxylic, phosphonic, or sulfonic acid. The polymer
containing phosphonic acid groups gave the best results with high distribution coefficients and concentration factors for241Am(III) and238Pu(III)/(IV) at pH 4 to 6 and ionic strengths of 0.1 to 4.
The uptake of several actinides [U(VI), Th(IV), Am(III), Cm(III)] and fission products was investigated from nitric acid solutions by two novel extraction chromatographic sorbents containing 2-(2-hexyloxy-ethyl)-N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctyl-malonamide (DMDOHEMA) and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamide (TODGA), respectively. The kinetics of the uptake of actinides was studied. The sorption of metal ions fromz simulated Low Level Liquid Waste (LLLW) solutions was evaluated. The results of these experiments revealed that the actinides and lanthanides could be separated from the bulk of other fission products in simulated LLLW solutions on both sorbents.
Authors:S. Pai, K. Lohithakshan, P. Mithapara, and S. Aggarwal
Synergistic extraction of hexavalent uranium and plutonium as well as trivalent americium was studied in HNO3 with thenoyl, trifluoro-acetone (HTTA)/1-phenyl, 3-methyl, 4-benzoyl pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP) in combination with neutral donors viz, DPSO, TBP, TOPO (mono-functional) and DBDECMP, DHDECMP, CMPO (bi-functional) with wide basicity range using benzene as dileunt. A linear correlation was observed when the equilibrium constant log Ks for the organic phase synergistic reaction of both U(VI) and Pu(VI) with either of the chelating agents HTTA or HPMBP was plotted vs. the basicity (log Kh) of the donor (both mono- and bi-functional) indicating bi-functional donors also behave as mono-functional. This was supported by the thermodynamic data (
S0) obtained for these systems. The organic phase adduct formation reactions were identified for the above systems from the thermodynamic data. In the Am(III) HTTA system log Ks values of bi-functional donors were found to be very high and deviate from the linear plot (log Ks vs. log Kh) obtained for mono-functional donors, indicating that they function as bi-functional for the Am(III)/HTTA system studied. This was supported by high +ve
S0 values obtained for this system.
With increasing global nuclear activities, there is a growing interest in understanding the migration behavior of transuranic elements in the terrestrial environment. The laboratory investigations on the adsorption behavior of AM(III) (10–7M) in aqueous solutions showed that there was not adsorption of Am(III) on glass or polyethylene vials from aqueous solutions at pH<3. The rate of adsorption was found to be inversely related to the (H+) in the pH range 4–7. It was also found to be strongly influenced by stirring/shaking as well as by the presence of particulate matter in the aqueous phase. The presence of particulate matter (>0.6 m) in the aqueous solutions significantly inhibits the adsorption rate. Attempts to fit the kinetic data (collected on filtered [particle size >0.6 m] or unfiltered distilled water at pH 6) to the reversible or irreversible first order rate equation did not successfully indicate the complexity of the adsorption process. The presence of 20mg/liter of humic acid at pH 6.3 completely inhibits the adsorption of Am on glass surfaces.
The uptake behavior of U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III) and a few long-lived fission products from nitric acid media by bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfoxide (BESO) adsorbed on Chromosorb has been studied U(VI), Pu(IV) and Zr(IV) are taken up appreciably as compared to trivalent actinides/lanthanides including some coexisting fission product contaminants which are weakly sorbed on the column. Chromosorb could be loaded with (1.12±0.03) g of BESO per g of the support. Maximum sorption is observed around 4–5 mol·dm–3 HNO3 for both U(VI) and Pu(IV), which are sorbed as their disolvates. The elution of (U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the metal loaded sorbent has also been optimized. Desorption of U(VI) is easily accomplished with dilute nitric acid (ca. 0.01 mol·dm–3)while Pu(IV) is reductively stripped with 0.1 mol·dm–3 NH2OH·HCl. Effective sequential separation of U(VI), Pu(IV) and Am(III) from their several admixtures could be readily achieved from real medium and low level active acidic process raffinates.
The technique for and methods of separation of products of nuclear fission play a major role in many stages of the nuclear
fuel cycle. The extraction of these products from effluent solution after the processing of the burnt-up nuclear fuel is receiving
considerable attention. Trivalent lanthanoides are usualy extracted together with Am(III) and their mutual separation is rather
difficult.1–4 The extraction of lanthanoides with tertiary amines or quaternary ammonium salts involving the benzyl group as one of substituents
has been studied in order to find the influence of the alkyl chain length on the extraction selectivity and capacity.3–5 Suitable extractants for the separation of Am(III) and Ln(III) from the acidic nitrate solutions were recommended. Using
vapour phase osmometry and cryoscopy the association of these compounds was measured at 5.25 and 50°C allowing a rough estimation
of medium association degree for the formation of the aggregates. The method of apparent molar volumes, supplemented by the
spectrophotometric method, was used for identification of the chemical composition of the aqueous phase.
This work investigates the sorption of americium [Am(III)] onto kaolinite and the influence of humic acid (HA) as a function
of pH (3–11). It has been studied by batch experiments (V/m = 250:1 mL/g, CAm(III) = 1 × 10−5 mol/L, CHA = 50 mg/L). Results showed that the Am(III) sorption onto the kaolinite in the absence of HA was typical, showing increases
with pH and a distinct adsorption edge at pH 3–5. However in the presence of HA, Am sorption to kaolinite was significantly
affected. HA was shown to enhance Am sorption in the acidic pH range (pH 3–4) due to the formation of additional binding sites
for Am coming from HA adsorbed onto kaolinite surface, but reduce Am sorption in the intermediate and high pH above 6 due
to the formation of aqueous Am-humate complexes. The results on the ternary interaction of kaolinite–Am–HA are compared with
those on the binary system of kaolinite–HA and kaolinite–Am and adsorption mechanism with pH are discussed. Effect of different
molecular weight of HA, with three HA fractions separated by ultrafiltration techniques, on the Am sorption to kaolinite were
also studied. The results showed that the enhancement of the sorption of Am onto kaolinite at the acidic pH conditions (pH
3–4) was higher with HA fractions of higher molecular weight. Also, the Am sorption over a pH range from 6 to 10 decreased
with decreasing molecular weight of HA.
Authors:R. Gujar, S. Ansari, A. Bhattacharyya, P. Mohapatra, A. Kanekar, P. Pathak, and V. Manchanda
The radiolytic stability of a branched diglycolamide extractant, namely N,N,N′,N′-tetra-2-ethylhexyl diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) dissolved in n-dodecane containing several phase modifiers, viz. N,N-dihexyloctanamide (DHOA), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), 1-decanol and iso-decanol has been investigated. The distribution ratio of Am(III) decreased with
increased radiation dose studied up to 1000 kGy. Nevertheless, all the composition of extractants showed satisfactory results
up to 500 kGy, beyond which the extractants degraded drastically. The stripping behaviour of Am(III) with 0.2 M HNO3 was found to be unaffected even with the ligand solution irradiated up to 1000 kGy. Extraction of fission product and structural
elements was also investigated using the irradiated solvents and was found to be not significantly affected with increasing
absorbed dose with the exception of Mo which showed sharp rise in the distribution coefficient values. Loading of Nd in the
organic phase decreased with the irradiated solvent due to degradation of the carrier. The effect of the absorbed dose on
physical parameters such as density, viscosity and interfacial tension of the solvents has also been investigated.
The diamide, N,N-dimethyl-N,N-dihexyl-3-thiopentanediamide (DMDHTPDA) was synthesized and thested for extraction of Eu(III), Am(III), Th(IV) and U(VI). DMDHTPDA shows a very weak complexation with these metal ions, which can be attributed to the soft base nature of the sulfur atom. None of the cations were extracted into the organic phase when DMDHTPDA alone was present. Synergistic extraction was measured for DMDHTPDA plus thenoyltrifluoroacetone. From the extraction dependencies on pH and extractant concentration, formation of mixed TTA+DMDHTPDA complexes were indicated. Except for the Th(IV) system, the separation and synergistic factors were smaller for the TTA+DMDHTPDA extractant than for the system of TTA+DMDHOPDA (the oxo ether analog of DMDHTPDA).