Authors:M. Saiki, N. M. Sumita, O. Jaluul, I. F. Sobreiro, W. Jacob Filho, and M. B. A. Vasconcellos
In this study a protocol for blood serum analysis was defined and the concentrations for Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn
were obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Blood samples were collected from healthy elderly volunteers who
were selected based on the SENIEUR protocol. Contamination of blood by the collection procedure was also evaluated and found
negligible. The serum was separated by centrifugation, then freeze-dried and analyzed. Most of results obtained were within
the acceptable value ranges used by physicians for normal population. The certified reference material, NIST SRM 1566b Oyster
Tissue was analyzed for quality control.
The advantages and drawbacks of using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for soil, sediment, plant and water pollution studies are discussed. The experimental procedures used for each method and for each type of sample matrix are described. They were tested on several certified reference materials. The results obtained on these materials showed good agreement for many elements for which the two techniques are suited, and they were complementary for the other elements which are also of environmental interest. An element-by-element assessment is presented to indicate the precautions to be taken and the most convenient technique for each of them.
Mn-nodule is one of the most important deep sea mineral resources to be explored and exploited in the next century. Analytical quality control based on this kind of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) is therefore necessay. In the present work, nearly 30 elements in two Chinese Mn nodule Reference Materials (RMs), GSPN-2 and GSPN-3, were determined using extendedK0-relative comparison NAA technique, developed in our laboratory. The unique features of this work include; (1) high accuracy obtained by the interal validation function of our technique; (2) extensive determinable elements obtained by the hybrid nature of our software and (3) neutron flux self-shielding corrections.
Authors:T. Miura, H. Matsue, T. Kuroiwa, and K. Chiba
Prompt gamma activation analysis using a focused thermal neutron guided beam at JAEA JRR-3M was applied to the determination
of B in ceramic certified reference materials (BAM CRM S-003 Silicon Carbide Powder and NMIJ CRM 8004-a Silicon Nitride Powder).
Cl and Si were used as internal standards to obtain linear calibration curves of B. The analytical result of B in BAM CRM
S-003 was in good agreement with the certified value. The relative expanded measurement uncertainties (k = 2) were 4.8% for BAM CRM S-003 and 4.9% for NMIJ CRM 8004-a.
A simple procedure for the determination of90Sr in environmental samples is described. The method uses the different solubilities of the oxalates of calcium and strontium in presence of a large excess of calcium. For this reason the method is especially suited for Ca-rich samples, as e.g., bones or soils. However, after addition of supplementary calcium it works equally well for other types of samples. The method was tested by analyzing the IAEA Certified Reference Materials soil, animal bone and algae.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Sun-Ha Kim, Jong-Hwa Moon, Hark-Rho Kim, Jong-Myoung Lim, and Jin-Hong Lee
For air pollution monitoring, about 1300 airborne particulate matter samples were collected by using a low volume air sampler
and a polycarbonate filter at two sampling sites in an urban region, Daejeon, the middle of Korea from 2003 to 2006. Mass
concentrations of the black carbon were measured using a smoke stain reflectometer. The concentrations of 24 elements in the
collected samples were analyzed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and its temporal trends and enrichment
factors were investigated under different environmental conditions. Analytical control was carried out by using certified
Authors:E.J. França, E.A. De Nadai Fernandes, and M.A. Bacchi
A Ni-Cr alloy was chosen as an in-house reference material for neutron flux measurement due to the well-known physical constants of the nuclides or interest and its low cost. The quantification of the Cr and Ni content was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), using certified reference materials from NIST as comparators. The concertrations and standard combined uncertainties were 19.32 ± 0.07 % for Cr and 80.2 ± 1.1 % for Ni, and the material is very homogeneous for Cr and moderate homogeneous for Ni.
The knowledge of the chemical forms of metals is used to assess their availability and uptake by plants, and in sediments the forms of metals determine their transport and mobility in the aquatic media. This information may be obtained by determining chemical forms of metals (speciation) or different phases in which the metals are bound, obtained by applying extraction schemes. The analytical methods used include different steps and all of them must be validated. We report here the recommendations to minimize the errors in this kind of analysis. For validation the use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) and the participation in interlaboratory exercises are highly recommended.
Authors:Sanjukta Kumar, Shailaja Pandey, and Sangita Kumar
A method has been developed for the analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) in kimberlite samples using inductively coupled
plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The samples were dissolved using sodium peroxide fusion and after appropriate dilutions the solutions were analyzed
using ICP-MS. The paper presents the concentration of rare-earth elements as determined by ICP-MS in eight kimberlite samples
from Central India. The method was validated using certified reference materials STSD-1 and STSD-2 from Canadian Certified
Reference Material Project. The method detection limit of various REEs varies from 0.12 to 1.54 mg kg−1. The total REE concentrations range from 418 to 726 mg kg−1 and fall within the interval of those reported in the literature for kimberlites. Despite the marked difference in the REE
contents, all the analyzed samples show similar REE patterns that resemble those for kimberlites. In order to compare ICP-MS
results, the samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis which is a reference method for determination
of REEs in geological samples.
Recently developed radiochemical separation scheme for the simultaneous detemination of trace amounts of molybdenum and uranium in biological materials by NAA has been further refined and used for the detemination of these elements in several certified reference materials. The method assures very selective and quantitative separation of the indicator radionuclides:99Mo-99mTc and239Np from practically all accompanying activities followed by almost interference-free measurement by gamma ray spectrometry. The method can be applied to materials of both animal and plant origin and enables correcting the molybdenum results for uranium fission interference reaction thus assuring good accuracy for both elements down to ppb levels. The detection limits amount to 2.5 ppb (Mo) and 0.15 ppb (U) for ca. 200 mg samples.