It is argued that Leydesdorff's theory of citations mixes the ideal or pure case with complicating factors. Ideally, citations
are used as shorthand and for ethical reasons. The social network between scientists should be seen as a second-order correction
on the basic model or, sometimes, even as noise. Metaphorically speaking Leydesdorff's theory is not a theory about ideal
gases, but about polluted air.
In this study, half-life, citation degree, form dispersion and title dispersion of physic journals were investigated, and they were compaired in each subfield with those in other subfields.The results from this study were that, on the whole, in physics the most preferred medium for physicists is the journal; however, in the subfields in which large experimental or observational devices are used, the use of reports and letter journals is going to increase.
An article by article analysis produced by ISI has been investigated to see whether this form of feedback might be useful to the editors. The data highlight the different roles of two medical journals, which are often regarded as similar. They also allow a parallel examination of the citation pattern of other items besides the standard scientific research articles.
A new paradigm for comparing quality of published papers across different disciplines has been proposed. This method uses
a figure of merit of the ratio of actual citations received to the potential maximum number of citations that could have been
received. It is analogous to approaches used to compare performance in physical systems, and appears intrinsically more useful
than present approaches.
Authors:G. Folly, B. Hajtman, J. Nagy, and I. Ruff
A sample of 80 Hungarian scientists, authors or co-authors of a total number of 6273 papers—published between 1930–1976—has been analysed. Citation data to eachpaper were collected form the 1964–76 SCI's by manual search. Citation counts were distinguished with respect to the following categories: (I) the set of cited authors has element(s) common with the set of citing authors (self citation), (II) condition I is not satisfied, but the cited author under study and at least one of the citing authors were co-authors prior to the publication of the cited paper, (III) none of the former criteria is satisfied. The yearly average citation frequency of a paper was not corrected for obsolescence, since there is no evidence that the decay of citation frequency with time is independent of the absolute citedness of the paper. Individual performance has been measured (a) by the sum of the vearly average typeIII fractional citation frequencies over all of the author's papers, (b) by the sum of the yearly average citation frequency normalized to one single-authored paper per year over the period of the author's activity, (c) by the same as ina, but summed up only over the most highly cited papers scattering upwards from the individual's own average, (d) by the fractional authorship, and (e) by the number of items in the author's publication list. The first three parameters seem to be applicable in measuring the utility of the individual's scientific contribution with slightly different emphasis on different aspects. These parameters are uncorrelated with those measuring the output of individuals.
A comparison of sources cited in the Japanese language Geographical Review of Japan and six western language, Japanese geographical serials reveals that while both cite the same proportion of foreign sources (a third), authors tend to select Japanese sources which are written in the language of the host publication. Foreign sources in the Japanese literature are overwhelmingly from the English language world, especially the United States, with a small admixture in German, from the F.R. Germany. The proportion of foreign sources in the Japanese literature appears to be in decline.
disciplines), the introduction of confidence intervals, and the rounding of reported indices to a more appropriate number of digits” (Vanclay 2012 ). Or, second and preferably, Thomson Reuters abandons citationanalysis altogether in favor of a “gate