Authors:M. Osman, X. He, F. Capettini, J. Helm, and P.K. Singh
Fungal diseases pose a great challenge to Canadian barley production, among which are Fusarium head blight (FHB), yellow rust and scald. An integrated management approach is needed to mitigate these diseases, in which breeding for host resistance is the most effective component. Constant evaluation of advanced breeding lines for their resistance to the diseases is important for making steady progression. The main objective of this study was to screen 1,174 barley accessions, from a collaborative project between the Field Crop Development Center (FCDC), Alberta, Canada, and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Mexico for their reactions to the three diseases. For FHB a 1-5 scale was employed to discard the very susceptible material in 2012 and 2013. In 2014, 514 most resistant lines having the score 1 in 2013 were re-evaluated in a replicated experiment. The most promising 166 genotypes were selected and advanced for their last evaluation in 2015 where FHB index was measured. Simultaneously, these 166 genotypes were subjected to two more experiments to test their reactions against stripe rust and scald. Eighteen two-rowed barley genotypes exhibiting broad-spectrum resistance to all of the three evaluated diseases were identified in addition to 40 lines combining FHB resistance with resistance to Mexican isolates and natural fungal population of either of the two foliar diseases and could be utilized in breeding programs aimed at improving resistance to multiple barley leaf and head blight diseases.
Authors:F. Vučajnk, S. Trdan, G. Leskošek, I.J. Košir, A. Sreš, D. Kocjan Ačko, and M. Vidrih
In 2014 and 2015, we studied the effect of fungicide spraying with 11 different nozzles on the quality and quantity of head and leaf fungicide deposit, the percentage of Fusarium head blight (FHB) incidence, FHB index, the DON content, yield and grain quality parameters. The best quality and quantity of fungicide deposit on the front and rear head sides was achieved with the TeeJet Turbo FloodJet TF VP2 nozzle (FLOOD) and the Albuz AVI-TWIN 110-03 nozzle (AVI). In comparison with the majority of treatments, the FHB incidence and the FHB index was the highest on the unsprayed control. The FHB index was higher using the Lechler IDK 120-03 nozzle (IDK) than with the other nozzle types. In all the treatments, the DON content in the grain was less than 50 μg/kg. At this very low level of infection this is not surprising. The grain yield was the smallest on the unsprayed control. Better fungicide coverage of wheat heads with the FLOOD and AVI nozzles did not result in a statistically higher yield or better grain quality parameters. Negative correlations were confirmed between yield and variables as DON content, FHB incidence and FHB index and also between falling number and variables as fungicide coverage, FHB incidence and FHB index. Positive correlations were determined between DON content and FHB incidence, between hectolitre weight and variables as spray deposit and coverage and between protein content and variables as spray deposit and coverage.
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