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Contemporary radical changes in the European geographical setting, combined with the consolidation of the globalised international market have resulted in a totally competitive international business environment. Nowadays, as in almost all countries, the Greek enterprises have to operate with a new perspective, based on strategic alliances. These business strategies should be implemented on at least a middle-term basis. This article explains the necessity for adopting these operative techniques in light of the limited presence of the Greek enterprises in the international market. Furthermore, it analyses a sufficient model of cooperative operation, which gives to the enterprises - mainly the small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) - the ability of adapting to the international market.

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This paper initiates an exploration into contemporary Greek literature for young adults and more specifically, literary texts with a social dimension. Contemporary Greek writers deliberately address social issues in a realistic manner by presenting all the different facets of Alterity: xenophobia, ethnocentrism, racism. Today these narratives pose new questions and attempt to familiarize the young public with an image of the Other, the Foreigner, the Different. The writers focus on the positive aspects of multiculturalism in contemporary societies in hopes of discrediting stereotypical images of the Other that continue to prevail in the collective imagination, to sensitize the public and ultimately to abolish the fault lines of bigotry.

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This paper is meant to re-examine the relative (and, at some points, absolute) chronology of some Early Greek changes of the occlusive phonemes (i.e. devoicing of Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirates, assibilation and palatalizations) and to point out some apparent questions and problems concerning the occlusive system as a whole.

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Most of the Greek lignite power plants have been installed in the area of Ptolemais, and a major part of them during the period 1981–1990. Aerosol filters collected in the first and the last years of the decade have been analysed for trace elements as well as for radioactivity (total beta) content. Analysis was performed by radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence, and 17 elements were determined. A special interest is focused on lead concentrations, an element whose environmental concentrations are regulated by the Greek law; the results for lead were validated by atomic absorption spectrometry. Trace element and radioactivity levels were found significantly lower than the current limit. Enrichment factors and correlation among the analysed elements were also estimated.

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In this paper we present an analysis of the nature of early contacts between the Greeks and the ancient Near Eastern states (mainly the Neo-Assyrian Empire) in the 9th–7th centuries BC. In the first part, on the base of cuneiform sources we try to reconstruct the historical background of the western expansion of Assyria, in consequence of which the Levant came under the firm control of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and the process of the eastern expansion of the Greeks as colonists, mercenaries or traders.In the second part of the article we discuss and emphasize the effect of the Assyrian imperial control on the trade of the Levant, namely the construction and functioning of the kāru-s, a system of ports of trade, whereto the Assyrians restricted the long-distance trading activity.

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Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been applied for the determination of Ag and Sb in water column, sediment cores, and two marine organisms from Saronikos Gulf, Greece. Higher levels of Ag and Sb were found in the water column and cores from polluted areas of the Gulf as compared to those from unpolluted areas. No significant differences of Ag and Sb were found in the two marine organisms from all areas of Saronikos Gulf.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
A. Grimanis
,
N. Kalogeropoulos
,
V. Kilikoglou
, and
M. Vassilaki-Grimani

Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very sensitive and accurate multielement analytical method that is widely applied to the investigation of environmental and archaeological problems. The first part of this paper is a review of pollution studies of toxic trace elements in sediments, seawater and marine organisms of Saronikos Gulf, Greece by NAA. The second part of this paper is a review of provenance studies based on minor and trace element research in ancient ceramics, obsidian, flint, limestone, marble and lead by Instrumental NAA, performed at the NCSR Demokritos.

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66 archaic Greek silver coins have been analyzed for the minor elements Cu, Au, Bi and Pb, and for the trace elements Na, Mn, Co, Ni, As, Sn, Sb and Ir. Instrumental neutron activation has been used for the determination of Cu and Au and atomic absorption spectroscopy for Pb and Bi. The trace elements could be detected only after a separation of the interfering matrix activities by an extraction with a diethyl-dithio-carbamate complex. The homogeneity of Au and Cu in the coins and the significance of the trace elements are discussed. The statistical evaluation of the analytical data reveals distinct groups for coins of some provenances.

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Abstract  

Thirty elements were determined by two INAA methods in sediment core samples from N. Saronikos Gulf, Greece, and the results were subjected to multivariate analysis. This procedure resulted in the separation of samples into chemical groups that were environmentally meaningful and sufficient to (a) distinguish among different pollution sources; (b) trace the routes and the extent of pollution in sediments; and (c) define the least affected areas representing the geochemical background. The principal components analysis of the analytical data for 18 selected elements revealed that, among the elements determined in this study, the most discriminating were As, Sb, Ag, Ca, Au, Zn and the rare earth elements (REE).

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Abstract  

The uptake of mercury, cadmium and silver from aqueous solutions by unpretreated and NaCl-pretreated clinoptilolite-bearing volcaniclastic rocks from Metaxades (Thrace, Greece) has been studied using a batch method with radioactive tracers (197Hg,115Cd and110mAg). The concentration of the solutions used varied between approximately 1000 and 17000 ppm. An improvement of the uptake ability was observed in the case of NaCl-pretreated material for all the investigated metals and especially for mercury at the upper part of the concentration range studied. The heavy metal uptake is attributed to different mechanisms taking place both at the rock grains and their individual mineral components.

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