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The effect of different concentration of NaCl on growth, mineral ions and organic solutes content of Artemisia monosperma were investigated. Experimental measurements were made after 70 days of growth in vessels containing Hoagland nutrient solution under controlled climatic conditions. Increased salt stress decreased dry mass, length of shoot and root as well. At the same time, the osmotic potential of NaCl had a great effect on the shoot/root ratio. The root initials also increased and the number of root initials decreased by increasing NaCl concentrations up to 0.4 MPa. It was also observed that proline, saccharide, and soluble protein contents increased in the shoot sap of the investigated plant. Glycolic, fumaric, tartaric, and succinic acid were clearly affected by increasing salinity in the nutrient solution, whereas oxalic and citric acids were significantly increased up 8.5 and 12 times of the control samples.

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The experiment was made by using different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) or salt solutions to decrease the osmotic potential of the growth medium to reveal the response of Phaseolus vulgaris to water and salt stresses. No germination (emergence of the radicles) occurred at medium osmotic potential lower than −1.0 MPa in all treatments. It was found that the activity of α-amylase and protease, and contents of proline, saccharides and the soluble proteins decreased in the germinating seeds during 3-day stress. However, after 10-day stress, the contents of organic solutes and the mineral uptake were also significantly reduced under stress. The seedlings under water stress induced by PEG were affected much more than under salinity. This may be due to the maintenance of a higher succulence under salt stress than under PEG-induced water stress.

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Alkaline and acidic pH of soil limit crop yield. Products of phenylpropanoid pathway play a key part in plant abiotic stress tolerance. It was aimed to assess efficacy of tyrosinepriming for activation of enzyme involved in phenolic accumulation induction of pH tolerance in maize seedlings. Seeds of two maize cultivars, namely Sadaf (pH tolerant) and S-2002 (pH sensitive), were grown under three pH levels (3, 7 and 11). Eight and twelve days old seedlings were harvested and parted into roots and shoots for the assessment of growth, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. PAL activity was directly correlated with total soluble phenolics, flavonoids, growth and seedling vigour. Lower accumulation of phenolics and PAL activity in the pH sensitive (S-2002) cultivar indicated greater oxidative damage caused by pH extremes. Priming improved antioxidative potential by enhancing PAL activity and phenolics accumulation and hence increased growth in maize seedlings.

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We studied oxidative stress and peroxidase activity resulting from application of excess copper in the nutrient medium on the roots of young bean seedlings. The change in H 2 O 2 content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities were quantified and located. Excess of copper caused a loss of membrane integrity and the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as visualized in the transmission electron microscopy and measured using spectrophotometry. H 2 O 2 accumulated in the intercellular spaces and in the cell wall. The production of H 2 O 2 was accompanied by an increase in the activity of soluble and ionic GPX (guaiacol peroxidase, EC 1.11.17), CAPX (coniferyl alcohol peroxidase) and NADH oxidase.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: G. Paulovits, Nóra Kováts, A. Ács, Á. Ferincz, Anikó Kovács, B. Kakasi, Sz. Nagy, and Gy. Kiss

The main function of the Kis-Balaton Water Protection System is to retain nutrients and total suspended solids, thus protecting the water quality of Lake Balaton. In this paper, the toxic nature of the sediment in the 2nd reservoir of the KBWPS has been characterised, using a battery of tests: Vibrio fischeri acute bioassay on whole sediment samples, and V. fischeri bioassay on pore water and elutriate samples. The latest version of the V. fischeri bioluminescence inhibition was applied, the Flash assay which uses a kinetic mode and is able to detect the toxicity of solid, turbid/coloured samples. Whole sediment toxicity showed a clear spatial distribution of toxicity, in parallel with elutriate toxicity. However, no pore water toxicity was detected, leading to the conclusion that contaminants are not water soluble.

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212 Griesbach, U., Wiemann, E. & Eggensperger, H. (1998): The use of water-soluble β-glucans as active substances in the production of therapeutic agents in skin treatment . PCT Patent Appl, WO98

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. et al., 2000 . Effect of increasing fertilizer doses on the soluble P, Cd, Pb, and Cr content of soils . Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 31 . 1825 – 1835 . Eick

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Mai Sao Dam, Xuan Thi To, Quoc Tan Pham Le, Lien Le Phuong Nguyen, László Friedrich, Géza Hitka, Tamás Zsom, Tien Cam Thi Nguyen, Chuong Quang Huynh, My Diem Thi Tran, and Vuong Duc Nguyen

removed from chamber each day for analysis of weight loss, firmness, total soluble solid, pH, external color, and visual quality during storage period. Weight loss The difference between initial (day 0) and each interval was considered as total weight loss

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. Germination will also reduce the complex carbohydrate content and inactivate trypsin inhibitor enzyme, resulting in better digestibility of nutrient ( Osman, 2007 ). Milk is an oil in water emulsion that includes soluble content. Water content in milk is very

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. J IANG , J. , X IONG , Y. & C HEN , J. ( 2010 ): pH shifting alters solubility characteristics and thermal stability of soy protein isolate and its globulin fractions in different pH, salt concentration, and temperature conditions . J. Agr

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